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Success of Trudeau in Ethnic Diversity Policies

by Daniyal


Canada’s prime ministers have built a rich tradition for the government and have formulated alternative policies and formulas to ensure progress within the community. Pierre Trudeau, prime minister from 1919 to 2000, is one of the leaders who influenced the country. The impact that Trudeau left on the nation included several specific missions and political reforms that could be used within the country for betterment of society.  More important, Trudeau established a change in ethnic diversity and communities, with promotion that enhanced these two focuses at various levels. In Canadian culture, Trudeau can be considered as the most significant Prime Minister for the advancement of multicultural diversity and cultural enhancement. The theories that Trudeau generated originated from his understanding of these philosophies of diversity. More importantly, the time period in which Trudeau existed and the external climate that generated transformation empowered the Prime Minister to take concrete actions specifically related to the desire for ethnic diversity and culture. Any of the many developments that prompted the Prime Minister to establish a clear viewpoint on the definitions of multicultural diversity were World War I, changes in Canadian ethnicity and globalisation towards a global perspective.

This research paper will explore how Trudeau gave this to the nation as well as why his change initiatives helped him to become the largest leader in Canadian diversity and community history. The analysis in this paper would discuss the patterns that this Prime Minister formed as well as how he started to adjust policy due to personal values as well as social factors that generated a need for racial diversity and shifting populations. The study would not only include steps taken by the Prime Minister, it will also involve other facets of the improvements created, such as how reactions have arisen across Canada and whether other government requirements have shifted in terms of racial diversity and community. These viewpoints would explain how and why Trudeau has been the most influential prime minister in creating multicultural diversity and culture.

1.1 Commentary

There were many tools that were used while looking at the study. The library started the key quest, which culminated in numerous books and reviews relating to Canadian politics and the way Trudeau’s time span as a leader was related to it. When looking at the books and pieces of evidence, concerns started to emerge not just regarding the underlying ideas identified with multiculturalism by Trudeau, but also about how journals, newspapers and editorials are still looking at the principles of ethnic diversity associated with Trudeau. This led to an alternative search on websites, which included free press areas and associations with newspapers and scholarly journals for more research and opinions over the time frame of Trudeau. 

The search for this section was successful and a lot of potential good material was found. Each of the material can be used for more research and relates to the argument.  The research can all fit into the materials for the argument, specifically because it combines the historical concepts associated with Trudeau’s leadership as well as opinions and changes which have occurred since this time frame.  More important, there are diverse opinions and definitions of what the ethnic diversity and multiculturalism means through both factual pieces of information and questions by opinions.  Even though some of these are only considered as secondary resources, it becomes effective with pointing out some of the ways in which Trudeau changed the concepts and ideologies of Canada. 

The important sources that were found were divided into factual information and opinion. For instance, the Laxer book highlighted the cocept of Canada and how it created diversity, which was specifically established by Trudeau.  Lammert’s book shows this as well, specifically by highlighting political movements in Canada, including the Multiculturalism Act of 1988 and migration.  More important, this book shows how the external environment, such as the Cold War, promotions from Europe and the fundamental reorganization of countries for migration pushed Trudeau into a leadership position to promote diversity. The book also points out how the concept of diversity was coined, including three dimensions of diversity, including indigenous people, founding nations and immigrants. The journals supported these arguments, such as the article “Changing Visions in Ethnic Relations.”  This highlighted the 1970s movements of multiculturalism and bilingualism while promoting the culture, diversity and cooperation that Trudeau personally believed in. The opinionated articles, such as Karim, all point out that Trudeau was the leader of multiculturalism and coined this term. The opinions also show that, while Trudeau was able to build this leadership, the change into current times has led to a gap and misunderstanding of this concept, which shows that many believe Trudeau was the leader in building concepts of ethnic diversity.

The section that was used and the individual sources were useful in determining history, opinions and responses from Trudeau’s leadership role. The limitation of each of the sources was from the objective opinions which were used to find the specific concepts.  Many of the commentaries came from an analysis; however, each of the sources lacked a sense of factual data and statistics.  Instead, each built from one particular idea and formed a thesis or opinion from this main concept.  For instance, Karim’s article stated the Trudeau was responsible for international concepts of multiculturalism; however, there are only basic references to the changes occurring at the time with limited perspective.  Another example of this was Khan, who stated an opinion that Trudeau was responsible for multiculturalism but it was outdated.  While there was some factual information, the basis of opinion created a limited perspective.  However, these can be used to support the factual information that was provided in the books, scholarly journals and from primary sources.

Finding sources for this section was easy, specifically because of web sources, continuous debates about this time frame and opinions that are continuously highlighted by Canadian citizens. There are several books that are based on these specific concepts, as well as commentaries that continue to be available to the public because of the changing role of diversity. The most useful experience when researching for this section was based on expanding the question and types of resources used. While the main sources of books and scholarly articles could have continued to be a prime source, other questions began to arise with opinions, ideas and overall stigma that were around the leadership of Trudeau and what occurred. This experience is one which can continue to be expanded on while finding resources that support the main materials of the Prime Minister’s role in shaping multiculturalism.                

2.2 Commentary

The primary resources that were found were based on websites, Internet research and links to different class notes, lectures and press releases online. To find these; however, there was the need to move outside of the concept of Trudeau and to define multiculturalism in Canada to find different results. Once this was found, there was the need to move back into the archives of specific institutes and think tanks and to find connections that were a part of research and other attributes which were a part of each of the sections. Independent documents, links and legalities were also involved in the search which linked directly to the time frame in which multiculturalism began to appear in society. 

The search that was completed had some potentially good material; however, for it to relate to the argument it has to supplement the secondary resources. Most of the material was based on a combination of opinion as well as links and implications which were directly associated to different organizations. This limited the factual information available about Trudeau and instead creates a link which defines how multiculturalism has affected and continues to affect the country. While this supports the main argument about the policies which Trudeau put into place, most of the information is based specifically on individual opinion or experience, as well as a relationship to the different associations and organizations which have an agenda to promote multiculturalism. 

The sources that were found can all be used as compliments for the main material and research about Trudeau. For instance, the two keynote addresses of Reitz and Stevinson referred to Trudeau and the policies which were implemented in the 1980s. However, one was focused on a keynote address to IMISCOE while the other was based on a political science institute. This shows that there is relevant information and evolution that has come from Trudeau’s main policies. At the same time, the information is limited to the arguments that pertain to the audience being spoken to. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is one which directly associates with Trudeau’s policies as it was incorporated in 1982 and is based on the beginning concepts of multiculturalism. This particular document can be used to show how Trudeau pushed forward democratic rights and freedoms for minorities within Canada while moving forward with concepts of multiculturalism. The last document which can be used is Huebert, specifically because of the mention of foreign policy and incorporating more international relations and multiculturalism. Even though this is based on the agenda of the CIC, there are pertinent points which relate to the ideologies created by Trudeau about multiculturalism. The interview of the Hungarian’s of 1956 also can be useful, specifically as an example of how the concepts of multiculturalism began to shape the nation. 

The different sources which were used in this section were useful in providing opinions and overall attitudes. However, the relevance is based on the evolution of multiculturalism. For instance, the key note addresses of Stevinson and Reitz are limited to opinion and audience.  The think tank sources, including CIC and RIIB are limited to the agenda of the think tank.  Each of the research areas are based specifically on providing insight into the think tank and new concepts of multiculturalism.  At some points, Trudeau is incorporated into this, which provides support to other materials. However, the agenda of the institutes has come before the factual information about Trudeau. This limits the usefulness and the ability to incorporate extra information. Since the facts are based on one perspective or opinion, it limits the capabilities with the research. 

There was some difficulty in finding sources for this section. There was not the ability to create a direct link to Trudeau and the information about growing ethnic diversity, specifically because this moved to secondary resources, such as scholarly journals. To find the necessary resources and to incorporate what was needed, there was the need to have extra information about multiculturalism as well as an association with the time frame. While searching through this section, there were relevant experiences with connecting how multiculturalism affected Canada as a nation. Since primary resources were difficult to find in relation to Trudeau, the research process led to understanding the evolution of the concepts of Trudeau, then linking these back to the political changes which occurred from the time frame of the Prime Minister. More important, there was an understanding through the interviews and the think tanks that provided a well – rounded perspective of how the policies and governmental concepts led into different concepts associated with the nation as a whole as well as how individuals are continuing to think in relation to multiculturalism because of the movements the Prime Minister started.    

3.2 Commentary

To find the resources for this segment, the library was used, specifically because of the number of encyclopedias and dictionaries that are available.  However, this was limited to similar information for all the resources, which changed the perspective to finding online references and links for educational materials and statistics.  To find this, there was the need to move into other areas of Trudeau’s influence on society and immigration and multicultural ideas that are part of present day demands. 

The research for this section was only partial successful with some information that could be used.  The dictionaries and encyclopedias provide basic information that can be used with the research.  The statistics that were found also relate the ideas of Trudeau to more recent ideas about multiculturalism and ethnicity.  However, the number of resources found can’t all be used with only one or two references which can be made.  Since the resource materials were larger, there wasn’t information that went into the concepts of ethnic diversity policies and extra components which were related to Trudeau in a more in – depth manner.  The encyclopedias and dictionaries can only be used for basic information.  The other information can relate to current trends that show the impact of Trudeau in current times. 

The best source for encyclopedias and dictionaries was the Dictionary of Canadian Biography.  This was based on the Canadian national perspectives and pertained specifically to the concepts of Canada and how they linked to the leadership of the Prime Minister.  While there was not as much detail, enough could be used to create a basis for the ideologies of the leader from the factual information.  The facts from the statistics and the teacher supplements also provide a basis for what others need to know about the impact of Trudeau as well as the changes that were made during this time.  The statistics by Feng further this with the continuous ideologies and mentality that come from the concepts of multiculturalism that were created from Trudeau.  Even though the statistical analysis was based on current information as well as aspects of ethnic diversity, the basis could be included with other parts of the research.  Combining each of these sources with the other information can work as a support for the main research. 

Even though there were some resources which were useful, the overall section was not useful with the research paper. The resources didn’t offer enough detail about the specific policies pertaining to ethnic diversity and communities.  To do this, outside links and references had to be made. However, there is no direct connection from the statistical analysis that this is a part of Trudeau’s influence, which limits the statistical analysis and resources. The main weakness with this section is that most of the reference material is basic and only includes a small space for the overview of an individual or situation.  Since reference material is required to offer variations of information and basic associations with a given topic, there isn’t a direct association with the other concepts pertaining to the research, such as details about ethnic diversity.  The nature of the reference materials then leaves several gaps that have to be filled with other factual information and concepts associated with the primary resources.   

Overall, there wasn’t difficulty in finding the resources for this section. However, there was some difficulty in finding diversity in the references used. Finding encyclopedias and basic reference materials was easier; however, moving into in – depth materials, such as statistics, were more difficult. Since one didn’t move into enough detail and the other didn’t create a direct link to Trudeau, the research became difficult.  To find the information effectively, the research had to alter to offer current trends that may relate to the policies and ideologies created by Trudeau. The important and useful experiences for this section are to understand the limits that reference materials have.  While the references provide a strong, factual basis, there isn’t detail that can be used with the material.  More important, if another type of reference is to be used, such as data, than there needs to be support through primary or secondary materials to enhance the information that shows specific trends as a direct link to the subject is often not available.    

4.2 Commentary

Finding the electronic resources was based on a combination of known websites and searches.The first search included the Google Video aspect, which linked to news and media links as well as sites such as You Tube.  However, the media was limited to 5 – 10 minute portions and some were not as relevant.  To counteract this, there was research on the Canadian National Film Board and the CBC to find relevant information and documentaries that were linked directly to the life of Trudeau. 

The search for this section was successful and the material is relevant and can be used.  Each of the components is based specifically on the development of multiculturalism that Trudeau used throughout his career as Prime Minister.  The development is noted through both outside perspectives as well as ideologies of Trudeau.  More important, are specific facts and changes that followed the ideologies that were stated.  The material can support the primary and secondary resources and provide in depth information to the research paper to give a specific perspective linked to the concepts of ethnic diversity and community that Trudeau initiated.  The other aspect links to the quotes and concepts that are stated by Trudeau instead of through an outside source that would only be able to allude to the concepts of Trudeau.  This will enhance the argument with direct proof on the beliefs and concepts that Trudeau continued to bring during his career as Prime Minister. 

The most important source in this particular section was the documentary, Trudeau’s Other Children.  The documentary includes several sections of information all which relate specifically to the concepts of multiculturalism and diversity.  The documentary combines detailed information about policies, procedures and regulations that were a part of the changes through Trudeau’s career.  This is combined with other factual and relevant information as well as personal interviews by those that were directly affected by multiculturalism.  The other important sources are based on the smaller interviews and direct speeches.  For instance, the interview with Charlie Rose and the speech On Equality or Independence are based on direct words and quotes by Trudeau.  These directly influence the concepts of multiculturalism and allow one to see how multiculturalism directly affected Canada through the leadership which Trudeau took.  More important, the interviews show specific responses that relate to the ideologies and philosophies that Trudeau pushed and implemented, all which led to specific policies which reflected in the nation.  Each of these sources can lead the argument by showing the ideologies of Trudeau and how this formed an effective basis for ethnic diversity and community. 

The sources that were not as useful in this section were The Private Life of Pierre Trudeau and Pierre Elliott Trudeau and Multiculturalism in Canada.  Each of these videos had specific information that related to Trudeau as a political leader.  However, both were based on opinions and research as well as private encounters with the political leader, as opposed to the factual and relevant information which occurred.  More important, each was based on a specific perspective of the individual who pieced together the video segments, without having as much knowledge on other trends which were occurring.  Not connecting the external environment and direct associations with Trudeau made these two sources some of the weaker elements that related to the political changes and concepts that were related directly to multiculturalism. 

There wasn’t difficulty in finding information for this section.  Since Trudeau was a political leader in Canada, there were several interviews and speeches that were a part of the videos available.  More important, those in Canada associate Trudeau with multiculturalism, which has led to documentaries and responses through the media that relate directly to the concept of multiculturalism.  The impact that was made with multiculturalism and the interest that many have in this Prime Minister from the changes made have led to several commentaries and documentaries that trace how this has affected Canada and the history of ethnic diversity.  The important and useful experiences that were a part of this section were related to finding historical and news related items that could directly impact the research paper.  This directly related to differences in perspective as well as the combination of information and facts with the commentary and individual interviews.  Each of these responses creates a more well – rounded response that supports the research.  The usefulness of this section further relates to the way that the resources can be used in various sections as well as how each focuses on multiculturalism for a thorough understanding of Trudeau and his impact on society.

5.2 Commentary

The research resources were all found through online sources and websites, specifically by searching through images directories.  The particular section required examining galleries and online portals that carried archives related to the Prime Minister and the way in which he was perceived through different times.  Other pictures were related to tributes that were later used for the Prime Minister and how these were linked specifically to the memory of the leadership which was taken.    

This section had very little relevant or good material which could be used for the research.  The material all linked specifically to the image of the Prime Minister as well as the debates that were surrounding the overall leadership role of Trudeau.  However, there was little pertaining to ideas of multiculturalism and diversity, as well as the political changes which were made.  The art forms are further able not to help with the research paper because each is based only on components of the leadership role, specifically which links to opinion. However, the images and the cartoons are able to provide relevance in understanding and appreciating the leadership role of the Prime Minister, as well as the debates many Canadians had toward the Prime Minister and the changes which were made.  Remembering this with other types of research can broaden the perspective of the Prime Minister as well as the controversies associated with multiculturalism. 

The most important source found for this particular search was the performing arts tribute, Wrong Places.  The performing arts is able to show the humanitarian concept directly related to multiculturalism, as well as the personal belief that the political movements were not healthy as boundaries were created among different individuals.  The presentation further creates an understanding that war and division comes specifically from ideas such as multiculturalism and the boundaries which are created from these.  Having this alternative perspective can help to create a deeper understanding of what happened during the Prime Minister’s term.  However, for it to become effective, other research would need to support the opinion.  The second most important sources are the political cartoons, such as Scoops and Trudeau Changes the Constitution.  These give insight into what was occurring during this time as well as how it changed the history of Canada.  Understanding the perspective of how Trudeau affected the history of Canada, specifically with Constitutional rights and ethnic diversity can also support and broaden the research paper by initiating questions for more investigation. 

The sources in this section were useful by creating a perspective and different understanding of the controversies relating to the Prime Minister.  However, the Pictures of Trudeau and the components of the International Airport were not as effective in giving information which could be used for the research.  The outlook which was given was based on the power and leadership that Trudeau had as well as how many perceive him.  The symbolism of the airport is also significant toward multiculturalism.  However, the analysis that is used at this level is only based on perspective and analysis, as opposed to direct facts.  This limits the research and can’t be used directly.  Instead, there has to be support that shows what the intent is of the comics, pictures or of the airport to show that it relates to the ideas of multiculturalism.  In this respect, the sources don’t provide direct assistance with the research paper, but relate to the ability to find other resources which can be used with factual information, as opposed to opinion.  

At first, the sources for this section were difficult to find, specifically with the concept of using performing arts, sculpture or architecture.  However, when the political cartoons were found, the research became simple with several types of political cartoons and comics which were created and available through archives.  The presence through basic images and portfolios was also easier to find, specifically with those who have a level of admiration toward the Prime Minister.  The importance of this section doesn’t directly relate to the research paper that is conducted and the components of factual information.  However, the ability to analyze and understand the architecture, artistic works and the controversial perspectives of the political cartoons changes the perspective of the research paper.  Most primary and secondary sources are based on praise of multiculturalism, while the artistic representation shows the opposing viewpoint and controversial topics associated with this.  The artistic works can be used to further examine the controversies of Trudeau and the way in which he related to society.  Having the art sources then becomes significant to create a different perspective of multiculturalism and the tributes of Trudeau as a Prime Minister.      

6.2 Commentary

Looking for the specific literary works and novels were first taken from online references that mentioned Trudeau.  However, it then led to different types of references from the library and areas in which Trudeau was mentioned as an alternative character.  Since the section relied on fictional concepts, as well as biographies, there was the need to find references to Canada as well as to the time frame which Trudeau was a part of, as opposed to only looking for the direct relations to Trudeau and the works that were written specifically about this political leader. 

The search for this section had some good material which could be used.  The material can relate to the overall research by defining specific events which occurred during the reign of Trudeau.  More important, there is a specific emphasis on different political actions that were taken, as opposed to the overview of policies and concepts which were taken.  From this perspective, there is the ability to expand on how concepts such as multiculturalism were triggered and how this relates specifically to the ideologies of Trudeau.  For instance, the kidnapping of two political leaders led to revolts and outbreaks, as well as Trudeau’s response of “Just Watch Me.”  This is used in the fictional representations as a response to what occurred as well as how this led to specific policies.  Even though it leads to a fictional representation for what occurred, the debates and in depth controversies can be used in relation to the primary and secondary sources. 

The important sources which were used were the two biographies by John English.  These are represented as both fictional and non – fiction works, specifically because they are a biography written by English’s close association with Trudeau.  These can work to support the other factual information and materials while creating a different perspective about the argument from a personal perspective.  The fictional movie, October 1970 and Three Nights in Havana can also be used as a reference to the opposing viewpoints and debates about Trudeau.  While these can’t be used as a specific reference relating to the political leadership of Trudeau, there is a direct relationship to the debates and opposing attitudes about the Canadian changes, specifically in relation to the amount of power that Trudeau had and the policies which he created specifically for multiculturalism and in response to the civil changes which were occurring.  This broadens the research paper and widens the research to a different perspective based on the opposing viewpoints about multiculturalism and the leadership of Trudeau.   

While there were many useful concepts used with the research, there were also limitations.  Since each of the perspectives was fictional and related to the artistic imagination, there is a slight limit of how it can be used with the research paper.  For instance, the two biographies of English and the biographies by Christiano and Ricci are based on a perspective that is associated with one side of the leadership.  These were done specifically from a viewpoint used for artistic merit.  When looking through the plot lines and emphasis on specific facts, it can be seen that personal perspectives and associations with the leadership becomes more important than the debates or what occurred during the time frame of Trudeau’s political leadership power.  The other fictional book and movie can only be used in reference to question the debates of power with Trudeau as well as how the policies created specific controversies within society.  For these to be useful, factual information would need to support the overall commentaries. 

The sources for this section were difficult to find, specifically when trying to find fiction that directly related to a political leader.  The biographies were easier to find, specifically through admirers and those interested in different parts of Trudeau’s leadership.   However, the fictional representations had to be linked directly to politics, Canada and the time frame that Trudeau was leading in.  However, there is still a secondary link when looking at these sources because they are fictional in nature and don’t comply directly with the research topic.  The usefulness of this section is to look at the debates and controversies of Trudeau.  There is also the ability to find alternative perspectives relating to the most controversial components of the political leader, which are based on specific opinions that either opposed or were for the changes which were made.  Defining the debates through the artistic representation, as well as through the personal opinion, can then relate to further research and questions of how this relates to the overall changes in Canada.  While none can be used directly without support, there is the ability to identify and analyze the controversies of Trudeau and his viewpoints on multiculturalism and leadership. 

7.1 Primary Research Design and Data Collection

The experiment to be used with this research study is observational and ethnographic methodologies.  The methods will be based on looking at different aspects of Trudeau’s leadership as well as the results from the announcement of multiculturalism which were a part of the basic era of Trudeau.  The design will contribute to the overall experiment because it will give ethnographic and social details that relate to the research while showing how ideas of multiculturalism and ethnic diversity began to change because of the policies and implementation by Trudeau.  The research will be combined with observations from different eras and how these contribute to the overall alterations in multiculturalism.  The significance of this will be to identify the social trends and changes that were directly linked to the policies of Trudeau. 

The design that will support the argument will include moving into different ethnic areas, specifically which were designed by Trudeau.  Immigrants, national identities and aboriginal tribes will all be evaluated.  Each of these areas will have an ethnographic study which will define how the policies directly impacted the groups as well as what occurred after this.  The first dimensions will then combine with the changes into international relations and foreign policies which began to open Canada.  From this perspective, social trends and an evaluation of the alterations in Canada will be noted, specifically by identifying how various groups in Canada began to alter.    

The first step to the design will consist of a set of questions asked to each group.  The questions will be divided into groups, specifically from 1920 – 1949, 1950 – 1969, 1970 – 1989 and 1990 – 2000.  1920 to 1949 noted the changes from immigration, specifically because of World War I and II as well as the earlier years of Trudeau as Prime Minister.  1950 – 1970 corresponded with this with an increase in immigration, while 1970 noted impacts and changes because of the riots that were in Canada.  1970 – 1980 had the several policies which were implemented as a result, specifically because of the riots and changes, while 1990 – 2000 noted the changes which came from the several multicultural policies that were created through Trudeau.  The questions in each of these groups will include:

  • How did this impact each group? (immigrants, nationalists, Aboriginese)
  • What changes were made in society because of the policies?
  • Which social areas where most affected by the change?
  • What attitudes were created in relation to multiculturalism?
  • What was the outside impact toward multiculturalism?
  • How did the announcement of multiculturalism begin to impact other countries and groups?
  • Were attitudes positive or negative when defining ethnic diversity?
  • What were the trends and changes which corresponded with the policies and the time frame of Trudeau?
  • How is the concept of multiculturalism being affected today?
  • Are the trends continuing to change with ideas of multiculturalism?
  • What are the social attitudes related to multiculturalism in each area and in the present setting?

After asking these questions, there will be an examination of the overall attitudes and trends as well as what the responses were for each group.  There can then be an understanding of what multiculturalism was, how it affected different groups and whether it was a positive or negative impact on Canada.  More important, there can be a deeper understanding of the social stigma surrounding Trudeau.  

      The observations taken will be specifically linked to the three groups which Trudeau defined in his dimensions of multiculturalism when looking through the policies, procedures and new laws pertaining to ethnic diversity.  However, the demographics that will be observed will also be limited to the major ethnic groups that have migrated to Canada, which include Jewish, Chinese and Hungarian immigrants, taken from Multicultural Studies and the primary references.  These will also be used for observations of time frames which have been recorded, references to primary and secondary sources which can be observed and recollections and interviews which are available from these three groups.  The same observations will be made through the nationalists and the Aboriginese groups by finding various sources. 

The observations to take place and the data collected from the information will be completed within a month and will include overall responses and trends as a response to multiculturalism and attitudes about Trudeau.  The second part of this, which will include the external environment and changes, will support this and will be completed within two weeks.  The time frames will then be compared to show how the external environment, policies of Trudeau and the social responses all created a significant change in the ideas of multiculturalism, while creating specific controversies which were directly related to the idea of the policies implemented.  The argument will conclude with the overall trends, explanation of the underlying attitudes and positive and negative responses that shaped concepts of multiculturalism that led to the significance of Trudeau’s new policies.      

8.1 Personal and Reflective Experience

The argument was chosen specifically because of the way in which Trudeau is perceived in Canadian society as well as the impact which many believed was left behind.  The leadership that he took, the specific actions that he proposed and the controversies that are still prevalent when looking at multiculturalism are some of the continuous debates that are associated with politics during this time frame.  The depth and details that are related to this all create a different association with Canada and how it is shaped not only through national perspectives, but also in relation to the external environment.  The research can identify the significance of the political leader as well as how it has created specific ideologies and an evolution of society as a whole when looking at concepts of ethnicity. 

The research topic was not only used because of the impact that is noted in Canadian society, but also because of personal and professional experiences.  The observations and stigma surrounding multicultural ideologies and concepts of ethnic diversity are in almost every arena.  Institutions, work environment, schools, personal life and friendships all carry a specific ideal of having a sense of ethnic diversity that is before the other aspects of society.  In today’s society, this has become problematic.  However, personal experiences also show a background of many friends who come as immigrants, as well as others that are known as nationals.  The definitions and the dimensions which were created by Trudeau are still used freely in society and continue to shape how individuals relate toward each other as well as what each individual believes in terms of ethnicity.  Understanding the root causes of these attitudes as well as how it is influencing society can also change specific perspectives and ideals related to the concept of ethnic diversity. 

My past and personal thinking also has a direct relation to concepts of multiculturalism and the significance of ethnic diversity which is a part of Canada.  My background comes from a line of immigrants that have come to Canada and worked specifically to build a new life outside of the conflicts of other areas.  However, the stigma surrounding ethnic diversity has changed from stories of not being accepted and into individuals defining ethnic diversity as a main component.  The research can define how and why this happened, which shows how my personal experience relates directly to the culture, society and the political influences that created shifts through time.  As this is understood, personal understanding and changes can be made in relation to understanding what it means to be an immigrant in Canada as well as how these personal changes are reflective in society. 


After examining the different areas of research and controversial topics, it can be seen that new avenues can be taken in presentation of the research.  When first beginning, the question was basic in how Trudeau changed ideas of ethnicity and multiculturalism as one of the greatest leaders in Canadian history.  However, the research that has been provided alters this concept in a different understanding of the research, specifically by showing that there were several controversies and problems when creating the new systems and political ideologies for diversity.  The research question is now an expansion from Trudeau’s effectiveness of policies to how this has affected society and the stigma that is surrounding those that are in society.  Examining the other aspects of this with more in depth understanding of multiculturalism and ethnic diversity policies will broaden the understanding of the concepts of diversity associated with Canada. 

The research plan that has come from the initial search is based on expanding ideologies of ethnic diversity in Canada.  From the research, it can be noted that most believe Trudeau had a large impact on ethnic diversity.  However, there is not an understanding of how this occurred, as well as what the multicultural ideologies were in association with society and what has occurred since this time frame.  The research plan will expand to understand the debates that were associated with multiculturalism and the plans which were implemented by Trudeau, both with positive and negative responses in society and politics.  More important, there will be a direct relation to the controversies as displayed in the resources such as the artistic works.  These were the most controversial and opposed the ideas of Trudeau.  Expanding on this alternative perspective and gathering a holistic view of what occurred during this time frame can initiate further research and ideas while implementing new concepts associated with the time frame of leadership from Trudeau. 

The sources which will be consulted the most for further research will be secondary resources.  These are the only resources that aren’t based on opinion, a specific perspective or debates about Trudeau.  Instead, factual information is used to define exactly what happened.  However, there will be reference to both primary resources as well as artistic works.  These two types of resources are effective in providing opinion and debates that were a part of society and Canada during each time frame.  By consulting these specific works to see what the debates are, then moving back to secondary resources to find the legitimacy of the social stigma surrounding the changes, there will be a deeper understanding of how multiculturalism affected Canada.  Reference to the research methodology will also be used, specifically to create a deeper understanding of how different ethnic groups responded to society and the policies which were made.  By directly associating with the social movements, there will be diversity in the understanding and the social stigmas which center on each group.

The searches that were most useful were divided into two categories.  Getting detailed information that was factual and relevant came from consulting the secondary sources, such as books and scholarly journals.  While some of these had a thesis statement or specific perspective, all used facts as the basis, which ensured that there was an impact from Trudeau’s policies and which proved the research topic immediately.  The electronic sources had this same impact by showing direct political relations to the topic which was being studied. However, the visual and artistic sources created a question over how Trudeau impacted society and whether this was positive or negative.  While the other resources were able to provide factual information, the commentaries that came from artistic works created deeper questions and opposing viewpoints relating to multiculturalism and the impact that it had on society.  This search was one which became overly successful in defining the main topic and in redefining the research topic. 

The disappointments with the searches came from the reference materials and the literary sources.  These were limited in perspective, some had no relevance to Trudeau and what was occurring and weren’t able to provide in – depth facts.  Most of the sources in these areas can be used but only for basic information of the research paper.  More important, these different sources didn’t stimulate thought processes or extra insight into the viewpoints of ethnic diversity and multiculturalism.  The other disappointment with the search was in the primary sources.  These were some of the most difficult resources to find and didn’t provide extra insight or relevant information.  To link the primary sources to the study, there would need to be tracked information pertaining to Trudeau and how it has led to current think tanks and associations with ethnic diversity.  If not, then these specific sources become irrelevant and can’t be used within the research paper. 

The research report was beneficial in understanding the process of research and knowledge creation.  The concept of the research process which was looked at before was based on finding information and stating what was said without moving into further depth within a topic.  There was also a belief that the best way to research was to only use secondary resources and to find information which pertained specifically to the topic.  However, when researching through various sources, all which needed a certain number of references, it forced a different process.  The beginning questions in one area led to different associations with the topic from other factual areas and pieces of information.  For instance, the process in the secondary sources began with finding basic information then led to opinions, news and other relevant facts that were a part of Trudeau’s focus on ethnicity.  Another example is the process with the artistic works, which led to an understanding that the multicultural viewpoint was one which was controversial and not as accepted as thought.  This aspect also showed a direct relationship into why there were noted debates within society.  The knowledge creation became a process of exploring the depths and perspectives of Trudeau and ethnic diversity as well as how different associations within society responded to this.  Even though not all the references would be used for the final outcome, each source was able to lead to a different reference or idea to create a more complete picture of the thesis statement which was at the beginning of the paper.  The knowledge creation with analysis then provided an alternative understanding of how each of these areas affected another as well as what the underlying beliefs and conditions were in relation to the main thesis statement. 

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  • Hill, Tony. Canadian Politics, Riding by Riding: An In – Depth Analysis of Canada’s 301 Federal Electoral Districts. New York: Prospect Park Press, 2002. 
  • Karim, Karim.  “Commentary: Pundits, Pachyderms, and Pluralism: The Never-Ending Debate on Multiculturalism.”  Canadian Journal of Communication 34, (2009).    
  • Khan, Asad.  2010. “Multiculturalism is Failing Canada, Needs a Review.”  Winnipeg Free Press (October), 2010. 
  • Lammert, Christian, Katja Sarkowsky.  Traveling Concepts: Negotiating Diversity in Canada and Europe.  New York: Verlag, 2009. 
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  • Csok, M. “1956 Hungarian Memorial Oral History Project.”  Multicultural Canada (interview), 1956.   
  • Klid, Bohdan.  “Multiculturalism is About Inclusiveness, Social Justice and Empowerment, Says Former Director of Canada’s Multiculturalism Program.”  University of Alberta: Canadian Institute of Ukranian Studies, 2003.  
  • Reitz, Jeffrey.  “Does Canadian Experience in Immigration Incorporation Have Lessons for Europe?”  Keynote Address to Third Annual Conference of IMISCOE, 2006. 
  • Rotman.  “RIIB Research: The Global Business Environment.”  RIIB, 2010. 
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  • Canadian Global Almanac.  “Pierre Elliott Trudeau,” 2005. 
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  • Ullmann, Rebecca, Martha Balchunas.  “Trudeau and Federalism: Teacher’s Guide.”  The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1978.
  • A Conversation with Pierre Trudeau.  Charlie Rose, 1994. 
  • Just Watch Me: Trudeau and the ‘70s Generation.   National Film Board of Canada.  Directed by Catherine Annau, 1999.
  • Pierre Eliott Trudeau and Multiculturalism in Canada.  You Tube, 2010.  Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSnkdadcsp0,   
  • The Private Life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau.  Direct by John English, 1997. 
  • Trudeau’s Omnibus Bill – Challenging Canadian Taboos.  CBC Television News, 1967.
  • Trudeau’s Other Children.  CBC Newsworld.  Directed by Rohan Fernando, 2010.
  • Trudeau on Equality or Independence.  1968 Constitutional Conference, 1968.
  • Canadian Magazine.  The Leader Post 2010.  Retrieved from: http://www.antiqbook.com/books/viewcat.phtml?o=nort&c=Canadiana/.  (Appendix F).
  • Khang, David.  Wrong Places, Spaces and Sites: Recitation of A Measure of War, 2010.  Retrieved from: http://finearts.concordia.ca/newsandevents/events/wrong-places-spaces-sites.php. 
  • Montreal – Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport.  2010.  (Appendix B). 
  • Mackay.  Not So Great Canadian Debates.  Mackay Editorial Cartoons, 2010.  (Appendix C).
  • Pictures of Trudeau, Pierre. 2010.  Retrieved from: http://123nonstop.com/biography/Trudeau,_Pierre_M.  (Appendix A).
  • Sneyd, Doug.  Scoops.  2010. Retrieved from: http://dougsneyd.blogspot.com/2010/01/scoops-cartoons-scrutinize-prime.html/  
  • Trudeau Changes the Constitution.  Musee McCord Museum, 2010. 
  • Christiano, Kevin.  Pierre Elliott Trudeau.  Quebec: ECW Press, 1994. 
  • English, John.  Citizen of the World: The Life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau.  Canada: Vintage Canada, 2009. 
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  • Monk, Lorraine.  Canada: A Year of the Land.  Canada: Lorraine Monk, 2008. 
  • October 1970.  NTSC.  Directed by Don McBrearty, 1991.
  • Ricci, Nino.  Extraordinary Canadians Pierre Elliott Trudeau.   Canada: Penguin Canada, 2009. 
  • Wright, Robert.  Three Nights in Havana.  Canada: Harper Collins, 2007. 

Appendix A – Images of Trudeau

Study in Canadian Studies: Success of Trudeau in Ethnic Diversity Policies

Study in Canadian Studies: Success of Trudeau in Ethnic Diversity Policies

Study in Canadian Studies: Success of Trudeau in Ethnic Diversity Policies

Appendix B – Trudeau International Airport

Study in Canadian Studies: Success of Trudeau in Ethnic Diversity Policies

Study in Canadian Studies: Success of Trudeau in Ethnic Diversity Policies

Appendix C – Trudeau Political Cartoon

Appendix D – Trudeau Political Cartoon

Appendix E – Trudeau Political Cartoon

Appendix F – Cover of a Magazine

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