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Sports Literature Review Example

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Question 1: Violence in Professional Sports and Implications to American Youths

Sports, particularly football, remember the American gist in the world, which for players and fans meant excitement, glory, and fun. However, there have been many incidents of aggression recorded in the near past that have tarnished the grandeur of American athletics. Corbin announced the death of Portillo, the Utah referee, who was brutally punched by a 17-year-old teenage player (Web). The youth was penalised by Portillo with a yellow card after a penalty. The conduct did not satisfy the young kid, which contributed to the boy assaulting the referee aggressively. In comparison, Corbin notes that the National Association of Official Sports acknowledges that abuse towards game officials is rising (Web). Because of the notion of improper judgement given to them, certain players and officials are specifically targeted by the players. Both the rivals and also the game authorities, there is often a spike in verbal abuse.

The rampant abuse in athletics has had a huge effect on young people today. When fouled, the youths conclude that the prejudice of the referee against their side must thus battle against the infringement. Some of the youngsters, particularly those who play football as a violent game, have to win violently. The mentality, however, drives the youth to play a violent game against the opponent side. In addition, out of fear of facing a hostile foe, some young people stay away from football, which they want to do as a sport. As adolescents develop to adults, most are petrified to be game officials, especially referees when penalised out of fear of the players’ wrath. Sports abuse is therefore adversely impacting America’s youth and shifting the mindset of young people towards sports.

Question 2: Abuses that Occur With “Win at All Costs” Approach by Coaches

Sports with good coaching bring enjoyment, creative thinking, and harmony among players and between players and the coach. However, the desire to uphold prestige and pride of the team has led to the coaches using a “win at all costs” approach among players. Therefore, the team must win the match to avoid the abusive mechanism of the coach. According to Legend website, sometimes the coach mistreats the player, thought to be the cause of the losing the match. Hence, the coach punishment is not allowing the player to get involved in the next match in the field. The coaches sometimes use verbal abuses to players lowering the ego forcing the players to engage in violent game to ensure a win. The article in Legend website described that some coaches train and forces the players to use foul methods to ensure a win for the team. Moreover, some coaches abuse the skills of players by ensuring the player remains in that position for long to guarantee a win for the team.

The need to win the game by most coaches is majorly to uphold their ego (Legend Web). This forces the coach to do all possible to ensure the players give the team a win. The promise of a higher payment from the team-organizing officials if the team wins at the end of the league becomes a motivation factor for the coach to ensure a win for the team. Such may mean the coach infringe the rights players by causing the players to practice overtime. Another driving factor for a must win for a team is to maintain the prestige of the team by maintaining the team’s grand position recognition. Therefore, the players have to ensure they give the team a win at the end of the league. This factors that motivate a win for a team are important but when the central reason of sports become may lead to unharmonious relation between among players and between the players and the coach.

Question 3: Collegiate System as a Great Form of Labor Exploitation

The collegiate system initially launched to sponsor athletes talented in sports to pursue college or university education. National Collegiate Athletic Association runs the college system in all schools in America. Higginbotham posits that the system has become a multi-billion commercial enterprise where students who brought forth the money receive no allowances (1). Moreover, these student athletes cannot participate in any other extracurricular activities because of the prohibitive law in the collegiate system.

Higginbotham deduce that the collegiate football and basketball produce 59% of total revenue of the athlete programs(1) Since, the student does not share in the profit that means the program is for the benefit of the institution desiring to participate in professional sports. Hence, student athletes continue in live houses though nationally recognized. Moreover, Higginbotham indicate such students have to work for the win of the team to retain their scholarships (2). Consequently, the focus in the game, leads to poor class category after graduation. The collegiate system is very exploitive because of the system use the good performance of the athlete in sports to advertise and earn money but cannot allow the athlete to do so.

The collegiate system is conduct to student athlete is unfair and needs transformation. It is saddening to know the nation recognized student athlete endure poor living condition while the school millions. Apart from the benefit of scholarships to student athlete, no body running the collegiate system has any concern on the student personal welfare. Therefore, I will join petition advocating for payment of the student athletes from the profit the institution acquire from the sports. Besides payment, the student should have the freedom to participate in other extracurricular activities. As the collegiate system priority is to win the game, the student athlete priority for good academic grade should also be a consideration by the collegiate system. Running and encouraging a petition for changes in collegiate system will bring about a difference and reduce labor exploitation of student athlete.

Question 4: Sport as a Way Out of Poverty

Poverty is one of the central issues that contribute to poor economy level in a country. Goldman indicates that when more than16.4 million children live in poverty, 50% are likely to spend more than half their years in poverty (Web). Thus, such statistics only expound on how poverty is a critical concern for Americans. Sports though for enjoyment and a form of relaxation could be a source of earning to a person. Therefore, sports can reduce the rate of poverty level especially among the racial minorities in America. Goldman explains than the minorities are two and half times likely to spent their life in poverty when still children (Web). Therefore, the limited access to education forces them to participate in sports to earn something small and keep out of trouble.

Moreover, sports require creative thinking enhancing the thinking capacity of the mind. Such a personality is the one that distinguish the best player in a team. In addition, the impoverished environment most athlete superstar grew up in motivates the minorities to join sports. Goldman explains that more than 50% of the minorities work hard to enhance their skills in sports to be like their super star role model (Web). Research shows that sports earn a college institution millions of pounds in a year. Therefore, covering for full scholarship and all needs of the student athlete will the burden of education to less able families. An person or a team with an unbroken record of sports is compensated consistently as long as any community is ignorant of the record. While only 2% of high school graduates become football athletes, athletics are seen by other minorities as an outlet for further education opportunities. Any sports player interested with the advertisement scheme is well compensated by the advertising firm, thereby raising living conditions. Thus, for the American people, sports are a one-way way out of poverty, particularly among racial minorities.

Question 5:  History Shows that Men do More in Intensely Competitive Athletic Competitions than Women.

Biologically and sociologically, some of the explanations used to describe certain discrepancies are. Moreover, some of the reasons are mythical and old-fashioned traditional stereotypes towards women participation in some sports. According to Centre for Gender Equality in Iceland, women and men have biological differences that may give one sex a higher advantage to another in some of the highly competitive sports (7). The fact remains women have smaller lean muscles that may hinder them of weightlifting exercises that increase the strength of a man muscles. Moreover women have lesser hemoglobin hence, lesser production of energy than men could produce at the same period. This only means men have more energy than women do. Hence, giving men a significant higher advantage in speed in most highly competitive sports women do.

However, women can also perform better in professional highly competitive sports like those that men do. Thus, Centre for Gender Equality in Iceland postulate that one of the major contributing factors will be increase of women role models in sports and reduction of stereotypes in women towards some athletic games (21). Creation of awareness on the importance of women participating in such sports will increase the self-esteem of other women to join sports. Statistics indicate that most of women drop out of athletic sports before joining high school lowering the number of women getting to professional competitive sports. Although, biologically men have a higher advantage than women do, women are capable of competing at such levels and break the record some men have when the stereotype towards women and sports reduces. The world record of women by 44% and men by 11.5% in 1995 because women have few role model to look up to In addition, there are no many competitive world records to give women a motivation to conquer the record as men have hence, the reason for the big drastic drop in sport swimming

Works Cited;
  • “Sports, Media and Stereotypes Women and Men in Sports and Media.” Centre for Gender Equality in Iceland 2006. Pdf. 2013 Oct. 12. <http://www.mujerydeporte.org/documentos/docs/sms_summary_report.pdf>.
  • Corbin, Cristina. “Soccer Ref’s Death Shines Light Violence Faced by Sports Officials.” FoxNews.com 6 May 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.foxnews.com/us/2013/05/06/soccer-ref-death-shines-light-on-violence-faced-by-sports-officials/>.
  • “Legends Coaching Philosophy.” Kansas City Legends, 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. < http://www.kclegends.com/content.cfm?section=92089494-5D40-46F4-B4BE-DC8E5695426C&content_id=A828ACCD-0595-4793-8884-40FBBDA4F81B&section2=A828ACCD-0595-4793-8884-40FBBDA4F81B&program_id=B08BE61F-5056-B802-A2CCC114EC4F81C5>.
  • Higginbotham, Gerald. “Free Play: Unmasking and Ending the Exploitation of NCAA Student Athletes.”  Online Academic Student Journal 3.7 (2011): 1-3. Web. < http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/552/2/free-play-unmasking-and-ending-the-exploitation-of-ncaa-student-athletes>.
  • Goldman, Justin. “Sports and Society: Can Sports Be an Effective Path out of Poverty for Youth?” Sports & Society 22 Dec. 2011. Web. 2013 Oct. 12 < http://bleacherreport.com/articles/994442-sports-and-society-can-sports-be-an-effective-path-out-of-poverty-for-youth>.

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