Cigarette consumption has been a topic of contention on several levels, and the U.S. administration has worked to find solutions to curb smoking, albeit with little results. Smoking poses damage to smokers, partial-smokers, and non-smokers is reasonably simple. Curative approaches have been taken to reduce the consequences of smoking, such as smoking abstinence, through specialised guidance. This article highlights the elderly population’s smoking and presents guidance and suggestions to combat the problematic usage of tobacco and its goods.
Definition of Smoking
Tobacco is the process of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of a burning tobacco covered in cigarettes. Because of the nicotine component in cigarettes, smoking is a negative behaviour that includes a physical addiction. Tobacco gases are a combination of more than 7,000 compounds, all of which are poisonous.
Overview of the Prevalence of Smoking Risk Factor in the Population
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2010, a survey found that 19.3 percent of people aged eighteen years and over have frequent smoke (Chaney, 2012). The largest preventable cause of premature death is cigarette smoke, responsible for 4430,000 fatalities. Lung cancer is linked with about 900,000 deaths related to smoke, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induces up to a million deaths ( Lewis, 2013). Cigarette smoking remains in the centre of causing illnesses and fatalities in the United States, and it is the leading risk factor for lung cancer and about 90% of lung cancer is linked with it.
Vulnerable Population, Ethnic Differences, and the Aging Population Due To Smoking
A 2013 Centre for Disease and Control prediction indicates that 17.8 percent of all U.S. adults are cigarette smokers. The largest prevalence of racial smoking was 26.1 percent of American Indians, trailed by 9.6 percent of non-Hispanic Asians. At 18.3 percent, non-Hispanic blacks are Hispanics at 12.1 percent, non-Hispanic whites at 19.4 percent, and 26.8 percent of non-Hispanic citizens of different races. 41.4 percent of those who earned a GED credential topped the category in terms of smoking prevalence depending on income and ethnicity, 24.2 percent of those with lower education years, and 22.0 percent with high school diplomas. 20.9 percent are individuals without a credential, 17.8 percent with an associate degree, 9.1 percent with an undergraduate college degree, and the lowest is 5.6 percent graduate individuals. Data suggests, however, that individuals with higher levels of schooling have a lower smoking prevalence. Adult males were 20.5 points stronger than females at 15.3 percent. People aged 25 to 44 years were the least smokers, with 20.8 percent and 8.8 percent of people aged 65 and over were the least smokers. Smoking has reportedly fallen to 20.9 percent in 2005, according to the CDC, to about 17.8 percent in 2013.
For the Western community and particularly the older age groups, the health outcome attributable to smoking tobacco is cumbersome, because smoking-related illnesses are persistent and take lengthy periods of growth. Thus, the issues with smoking with an ageing community became more clear to contend with (Guliš, 2014).
Healthy People 2020: Goals About Tobacco Use
Good People 2020 is a federal government programme that provides wellness targets for American citizens (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). This paper is therefore drawn up from the former government programmes aimed at directing action to boost the wellbeing of the nation (Truglio-Londrigan, 2013). Therefore, Safe People 2020 has framed a phase towards gradually bringing about an improvement in the status of communal health in order to achieve this target for Americans by 2020. It is by rallying associates, evaluating the community’s needs, crafting and employing a plan to reach the target goal and follow the plan’s development along the course According to the goal set in relation to tobacco use and secondhand exposure means that there will be a decline in the cases of infections, disabilities, and deaths. Since exposure to secondhand smoke means there are no risk-free levels; in adults, it causes the infection of the heart and lung cancer. Health problems associated with secondhand smoking in youngsters, for example, asthma attack, respiratory and ear infections (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).
Causes of Smoking
Smoking is an addiction that is very hard to stop, and many people start smoking when they are teenagers and this habit continues to adulthood. Young people may smoke to look mature, experiment or due to peer pressure while older people may experience pressures and stress due to both personal and economic issues. Many people are also attracted to start smoking because of influences from the advertisements put out by cigarette manufacturers in the media.
Diseases that Can Occur if Smoking is Not Addressed and Treated Appropriately
Tobacco is one of the top causes of preventable death that kills millions of people every year worldwide. It causes a higher risk of various chronic disorders developing because of smoking. Such disorders include cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and peptic ulcer disease. Others include; gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, periodontitis, cataracts, chronic abdominal aneurysm, and various kinds of lung cancer, and atherosclerosis. Smoking causes the risk of both heart disease and heart attack even when it is exposed to non-smokers. Smoking causes a depressant relaxation effect, and it is a risk factor for cancer, coronary artery disease, and COPD developments.
Tobacco smoke consists of toxic gas and when inhaled it causes bronchi constriction, cilia paralysis, distal airways dilation and destroys the walls of alveolar. As a component of cigarette fumes, carbon monoxide mixes with nicotine, and combines with hemoglobin in the bloodstream and decreases the blood’s ability to carry oxygen (Lewis, 2013).
Smoking does not only affect adults but also affects the unborn fetus. If pregnant women smoke, they increase the risk of infant death, early delivery (prematurity), Miscarriage, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Estimates show that if all pregnant women avoid smoking, approximately 4000 new babies will not die every year.
Special Concern of Smoking for the Elderly
The consequences of diseases related to tobacco and a huge cost of financing systems such as the Health Care and Welfare Social Security is to pay for disability benefits for crippled persons, coupled with aged Americans makes the subject regarding tobacco a legal and policy issue. Tobacco remains a public health and legal concern for both smokers and non-smokers. ETS also posed questions over the incidence of 70 million American residents aged 50 years and older owing to elevated respiratory and cardiac issues. Both state and local federal programmes have established free smoking areas to ensure protection for the elderly. There is limited literature on tobacco and the elderly, and less exposure is given to particular legal and public policy concerns that bind tobacco and the elderly.
Appropriate Nursing Interventions that Can be Used to Address the Risk
From the instruction received, nurses are responsible for encouraging individuals to end the bad habit of smoking. Each nurse is given the duty of identifying a tobacco user and supplying them with details about how to stop, according to the Joint Commission. The majority of health care facilities are tobacco-free. Thus, hospitalization of the ill patient may motivate them to quit smoking coupled with brief advices given as compared to those who are not hospitalized (Lewis, 2013).
The Role of the Nurse when a Patient is Ready and Willingness to Quit
Tobacco is very addictive which makes it hard for patients to quit it. Many users make a number of attempts to quit tobacco use, but these efforts are usually hampered in cases where they do not get assistance. Nurses have key roles in helping patients to quit tobacco. Among the main strategies that are used by the nurse is counseling to change their behavior. The strategy expects nurses to encourage specificity by patients regarding what, when, and how he or she plans to make this change happen. It then expects nurses to encourage their patients not to give up and include them in behavioral therapy. In exceptional cases, nurses are required to administer medication to patients who suffer from the effects of tobacco. Regarding the case of quitting patients who are aged adult, nurses have the responsibility to record the day of quitting, removing every tobacco product from the reach of the adult, especially if they are under the care of the nurse at a home. Nurses also have the responsibility to inform both the family and friends of the intention (Mauk, 2013).
Summary of the Articles
Evidence-Based Treatments for Smoking Cessation
Based on the information from the article, it’s notable that what the authors have clearly stated is that the dangers of smoking are very well known. Tobacco smoking is the main preventable cause causes premature death and has led to 443,000 deaths. A lot of deaths are associated with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking cessation lowers the risk of one getting a chronic infection. Counselling by the nurses is the best tool to address the issue of quitting smoking.
Interventions to Trigger Quit Attempts
According to this article, nurses are the principal group in the medical profession who has the responsibility of ensuring that patients are helped to quit smoking. In the United Kingdom, their preparation combined with sufficient drugs to quit was rampant to avoid the cessation of smoking. With large funds used to counter this issue, smoking is both a social and economic burden. Nevertheless, individuals do choose to smoke, and medical nurses are in a role to support individuals stop smoking. Smoking induces early mortality, and deaths are compensated for. Prolonged smoking refers to illnesses and chronic disorders, such as cancer. The elderly community, in particular, is vulnerable to smoking and its side effects. Because of the essence of their generation, a lot of consideration should be given to the elderly and safe treatment of the elderly should be discussed.
Smoking-Cessation Counselling by Nurses
According to this article, nurses have a responsibility in assisting the smoking individuals to end the bad habit by offering advice and counseling sessions. Smokers should also be ready and willing to quit the bad habit in order to prevent the consequences associated with smoking. Hospitalization is an important mean to help the patients to quit smoking. Patients are more responsive as a result of efforts to stop smoking. Urgencies that involve smoking cessation should be considered, thus, hospitals will enable population health by lowering smoking.
How the Information Presented Might Change the Delivery of Care for Patients who Smoke
Delivery of patient care is based on the evidence described in the three articles. The recommendations give an emphasis on the importance of being able to identify all smokers and advising them to stop smoking and be in a position to determine the willingness of the patient to try an attempt to stop. Furthermore, patients who are not willing to end smoking require interventions in the form of motivation in order to promote successive efforts to quit this habit. If a person is willing to quit smoking clinicians in primary care can come into assistance. The information is crucial because it can help in better understanding patients and the best ways of helping them.
Advantages of Quitting Smoking
Quitting smoking reduces the chances of a person dying since one out each six men die in the United States due to smoking-related diseases. Men who quit smoking by the time they are 30 years, add ten years to their lives. Many that left at 60 years of age add three years to their lives. They mainly avoid diseases like lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and heart disease. Quitting smoking also helps people breathe easier and cough less because it improves their lung capacity. Those who kick the habit also have whiter teeth because it stops teeth from becoming stained. Patients are less likely to get gum diseases and lose their teeth.
Health Improvements After Patients Stop Smoking
Some of the health improvements enjoyed by ex-smokers include reduced risks of getting a heart attack. It enhances easier breathing because the lung capacity is improved by ten%and increase the mental health. Researches show that levels of stress are low after smokers stop the bad habit.
Treatment/ Techniques Used to Stop Smocking
It is really difficult to stop smoking because nicotine is extremely addictive. Smokers, though, have a range of alternatives that promote the process. The best approach is by distracting and moving out of an enticing position to stop smoking causes such as social pressure. Such approaches include;
Smoking cessation medications can help patients reduce cravings and ease withdrawal symptoms. The method is most effective when used as part of the comprehensive program that is monitored by a physician. Some medications which are used in the short-term include verenicline (Chantix) and bupropion (Zyban).
Nicotine Replacement Therapy
Nicotine replacement therapy is an option that involves replacing cigarettes with nicotine substitutes, such as nicotine patch and nicotine gum. This method is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that works by delivering small amounts of nicotine in the body. It aims at relieving some withdrawal symptoms without the poisonous gases and tars found in cigarettes. The method aims at helping patients focus on breaking their psychological addiction and concentrate of learning coping skills and new behaviors.
There are alternative treatment methods that do not involve prescription medication of nicotine replacement therapy. Hypnosis is one of the most popular methods that can produce good results. By bringing the patient into a profoundly comfortable condition, hypnosis works where he/she is open to suggestion that strengthens his/her desire to quit smoking and increase the negative feeling towards cigarettes.
The second alternative is acupuncture which is the oldest known technique. It functions by allowing natural pain relievers (endorphins) to be produced that help the body relax. Acupuncture helps in managing smoking withdrawal symptoms.
Nicotine addiction in some patients is closely related to their habitual behaviors that are related to smoking, such as, drinking alcohol. Behavior therapy, the third alternative, focuses on breaking those habits and learning new coping skills.
Finally, motivational therapies aims at finding a motivational factor that will help a patient quit smoking. One way is calculating the monetary saving as a result of quitting the habit.
Tobacco smoking remains one of the key legally allowed user goods that are deadly when persons use it as envisioned. Its negative effects on health are high as it is the source of destruction of each organ in a person’s body. Nevertheless, it’s mainly damaging to the lungs causing cancer, diseases, and numerous cardiovascular systems. Roughly half of the smokers that have been practicing the habit die early. It is projected that typically; cigarette smoking decreases life expectancy of persons by an enormous percentage. The Increase in the use of all methods of tobacco have severe consequences and has the possibility to act as an entry drug for other stuffs. For these negative reasons, it is important that society speaks the deadly issues related to tobacco use.
- Bergman, S. B.-B. (1996). TOBACCO. A LEGAL AND POLICY ISSUE OF THE ELDERLY.
- Chaney, S. E. (2012). Evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation. Nursingcenter.com, 24-31.
- Guliš, G. Et. Al. (2014). Assessment of Population Health Risks of Policies. New York: Springer Publishers.
- Lewis, S., Et. Al. (2013). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems … New York: Elsevier.
- Mauk, b. K. (2013). Gerontological Nursing: Competencies for Care. New York: Library of Congress.
- Truglio-Londrigan, M. (2013). Public Health Nursing: Practicing Population-based Care. New York: Jones and Bartlett Learning, LLC.
- US Department of Health and Human Services (2015) Healthy People 2020 Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx
- Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2020.htm
- Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/topicsobjectives2020