Everyone knows that smoking is dangerous and harmful to human health. Smoking has tons of chemicals that cause cancer to spread through problems and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Now a lot of scientists are trying to find out the link between the smoking and reproductive system.
According to an estimated 1/3 of the men across the world, the population is smoking cigarettes. And in America, more than 21% of men do smoking.
According to the research of European urology published in April 2016, smoking has some severe effect on sperm count spend mortality then spend morphology.
a) Sperm concentration:
- The number of sperms that are found in semen is known as sperm concentration.
- Sperm is made up of seminal plasma that has a critical role in the fertility of the male.
- Seminal plasma has a lot of proteins, fatty acid, and fructose that helps to develop sperm.
- These nutrients in similar plasma make the sperm healthy so he can reach the reproductive track o female.
- There are tons of chemicals in tobacco that cause difficulty for sperms to reach safely into the reproductive tract.
- A high level of zinc on seminal plasma causes to reduce the concentration in the sperms of males.
- According to a study, the level of zinc in seminal plasma is significantly high in the heavy smoker as compared to healthy people.
- Moreover, several studies show that there is a 23% decrease in the spam concentration of heavy smokers compared to non-smokers.
b) Sperm quality:
- The mortality of the sperm’s measures sperm quality.
- The capacity for swimming in sperm is known as sperm motility.
- if there is less sperm mortality, then the chances of sperm reaching the female reproductive are very less
- Researchers found that there is 13% less sperm motility in a person who is a heavy smoker as compared to a non-smoker. (Heavy smoker means a person who smokes more than 20 cigarettes per day)
- In the Male reproductive system, there are tons of hormones responsible for the production, such as follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone.
- Researchers show that smoking can lead to infertility in men by reducing the production of reproductive hormones it makes.
- Smoking can also cause increases in reactive oxygen species. These are biologically active radicals that can damage and kill the sperm. Reactive oxygen species negatively impact sperm mortality. Due to this reason, sperm with less motility produce more and reduce the chances of pregnancy.
c) Sperm morphology:
- Sperm morphology means the shape and size of the sperm.
- Many studies show that heavy smokers have a smaller number of well-shaped sperm as compared to non-smokers.
- Smoking causes abnormalities in the structure of the sperm, such as a problem in the tail.
- The ones who are not in good shape are not the best swimmers, so the chances of getting into the reproductive tract are very less for them.
- Due to this, sperm’s chances of fertilizing an egg by sperm are very less and reduces the chances of pregnancy.
d) Sperm DNA:
- Apart from the alteration in the sperm count and shape, smoking can also cause damage to the DNA of Sperms.
- Studies s show that DNA fragmentation in non-smokers is much lower as compared to heavy smokers.
- DNA fragmentation Is the breakages or separation in the DNA of the sperms.
- The increased DNA fragmentation in sperm causes the difficulties during fertilization of embryo, development of the embryo, implantation of the fetus, increase the chances of miscarriages and complications during childbirth.
- Due to the damaged DNA sperms, the chances of being pregnant even with IVF is meager.
e) Erectile dysfunction:
- EErectile dysfunction is the failure to maintain or sustain strong erection during intercourse.
- Smoking increases the risk of erectile dysfunction a lot.
- According to one study, the chances of erectile dysfunction can increase in heavy smokers by 30%
- Erectile dysfunction is not an indication of infertility. But it may be the reason for not getting pregnant because a person cannot maintain their direction long enough in sexual intercourse.
- Erectile function can be treated by just quitting smoking. The effect of quitting smoking will be shown on sperms and erectile dysfunction after three to five months.
- Several studies show that the chances of erectile dysfunction Are a 20% increase in heavy smokers.
- The leading cause of erection is healthy food and transmission of good quality blood towards the arteries of the penis. But after smoking, lungs absorb a lot of toxins, and these incorporate into the blood. Then the toxic blood transfers toward the arteries of the penis that cause erectile dysfunction.
f) Parental exposure:
- If a woman is smoking during pregnancy, then the chances the child has some infertility in it is very high.
- But studies prove that there is no impact on man infertility to the child infertility due to smoking. However, that does not mean that a man’s tobacco does not cause any harmful effects on the child.
- Male smoking cause disease during childbirth or cancer in a child.
- The effect of male smoking on the female partner is also very high as they are exposed to secondary smoking.
- According to one study due to passive smoking, there is a decrease in the number of eggs in the female reproductive tract by 46%
There is not enough evidence that proves scientifically smoking has a severe effect on infertilities of man. Yet, it shows that smoking can reduce the chances of pregnancy.
According to one study, if a person is on the border of bringing infertile and starting smoking, then the chances of being infertile are very high.
Moreover, after quitting a cigarette or smoking, the chances of curing infertility existed.
Smoking does not only affect the infertility of men but also women too. The chances of miscarriage during pregnancy is high in Woman who is heavy smokers as compared to non-smokers. If a woman is exposed to smoke during pregnancy, that can cause developmental disorders in the child.