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History of Public Health and Population Health

by Daniyal


The constant development across all the domains has benefitted human beings in a significant manner. However, millions of people die across the world due to improper health facilities. The outbreak of numerous diseases has been a matter of major concern for the people worldwide. Though with the help of new age technology and improved medical studies has supported the people quest for a healthy lifestyle. In the recent years significant concern has been laid upon the growing number of patients with dementia in the British society. Accordingly, it has been observed that within the growing number of aging population in the British society, the prevalence of dementia is also rising at a rapid pace. Statistically, about 800,000 people in the United Kingdom are ascertained to be living with dementia costing the UK £26 billion a year. It is anticipated that the by 2015, the figure will rise to 850000 dementia patients in the British society (Jones, 2014; McCracken & Philips, 2012; Pillay & Holtz, 2009).

With this concern, the essay intends to identify the potential changes that could be made to British society today to ensure a healthier population in 2020. The major focus is laid upon the healthcare measures towards addressing the issue of growing number of dementia patients in the British society (Briend & Prinzo, 2009; Cavenagh & et. al., 2011).

History of Public Health and Population Health

The History and Philosophy of Public Health and Populations’ Health

After the World War II, population growth within the British society was very limited. Apart from war casualties of war, outbreak of diseases and poor medical facilities were the major factor contributing towards widespread loss of life in the UK. Currently, dementia is recognised as a common disease in older people, particularly due to its widespread prevalence across the world. Historically, due to lack of awareness in the past century, most of people were unable to determine the consequences and symptoms of dementia disease. For that reason, most of people suffered from unknown psychological and behavioural problems. In the 18th century, people were more focused on civilianization. During the era of civilianization, every governmental policy offered urban people of with numerous advantages while most of the rural people were ignored. The gradual shift was witnessed in the British society which was reflected by the increasing concern of the policy makers towards promoting the health of the citizens. In this regard, numerous policies were set towards ensuring the community engagement and promoting good health of the people within the country (Kronenfeld, 2007; Pace et. al., 2011; Weiner & Lipton, 2012).

The Role and Responsibilities of the Agents, Actors and Institutions Involved in the Process of Developing, Implementing and Evaluating Health Policy

The healthcare professionals, government and non-government bodies, and healthcare institutions have huge role and responsibilities to implement health policy among British society. To improve the health conditions of each human being social agents, actors and institutions of society have to implement policies, which can easily improve sustainability of human being. The people living with dementia are identified to experience the episode of impulsivity, depression, speech and language difficulties, swallowing, memory distortions and restlessness. As per the medical reports of UK society, 50% elderly people are suffering from dementia. Elderly people are the main base of society, to improve their health conditions social actors of health industry such as medical professionals, nurses, NGO professionals have to take measures and provide better medical facilities. Nowadays, with the invention of medical tools, several diseases can be cured. To improve the sustainability of British Society, social actors, agents and institutes first identify problems and set an agenda. According to formulating effective policies and adopting collective decisions are crucial for implementing health policies in society. Evaluation is very important for any kind of policy implementation. Every social actor, agents and institutes properly evaluate health policies after implementing among society. Thus, social actors, agents and institutes play an effective role and responsibility in developing, implementing and evaluating health policy (Emre, 2010; Greenhalgh, 2014; Laventure & Claudine, 2009; Lang et al., 2009).

The Role and Responsibilities of the Agents, Actors and Institutions Involved In Developing, Implementing and Evaluating a Health Promotion Campaign

Health promotional campaigns are very useful medium to improve health conditions of rural and urban people. Nowadays, government and non-governmental institutes have been taken initiatives to organise health promotional campaigns to generate awareness about different health diseases and problems. The actors, agents and institutes from medical industry have been participating in health promotional campaigns to improved global health conditions of rural and urban areas. The healthcare professionals, government bodies and policy makers, and healthcare institutions are providing free medical support and check-up camp to make society disease free. Through health promotion campaigns, healthcare professionals, government bodies and policy makers, and healthcare institutions have enriched sustainability of rural and urban people (McCracken & Philips, 2012). To ensure a healthier population by 2020 of British society healthcare professionals, government bodies and healthcare institutions developed health campaigns for rural and urban people. From the studies, it has been seen that in the United Kingdom most of rural people died because of poor medication and lack of awareness (Cavenagh & et. al., 2011). On the other hand, most of the elderly people in urban and rural area are being suffered from dementia. With the help of health promotion campaigns, government bodies, policy makers, and healthcare institutions can prevent health problems and create a healthier population by 2020 (Willemse, 2011; Jacobsen, 2009; Holtz, 2008).

The Causes and Consequences of Health Inequalities both Within and Between Populations

The primary cause of health inequalities between and within populations is economic imbalances and inadequate awareness about health problems. It has been recognised that due to poor economic conditions and lack of awareness people in rural and urban areas are suffering with numerous diseases. Owing to, lack of knowledge and negligence rural people faced poor health conditions. This kind of negligence and poor medical service has not ensured healthier population in British society (Greenhalgh, 2014).

The Multiple Determinants That Influence the Health Status of the Population

The multiple determinants that influence health status of the population in the British society are related to financial problems, poor medical facilities, illiteracy, imbalance food habits, poor lifestyle, lack of hygiene, and lack of proper knowledge. These multiple determinants have generated poor health outcomes among British society (Greenhalgh, 2014; Weiner & Lipton, 2012).

The Major Obstacles to Improving, Promoting or Maintaining the Health of the Population

One of the major obstacles towards improving, maintaining the health of people in the British society are illiteracy and poor medical services. Due to illiteracy and low hygiene, people in rural areas are suffering numerous types of diseases. On the other side, poor medical services create a barrier to maintaining healthier population within the British Society. Besides illiteracy and poor medical facilities, the rapidly changing lifestyle and bad food habits among others are other obstacles to promoting healthier life. These factors have an adverse impact on the health of the population in society. Thus, promoting healthier society, healthcare professionals, government bodies and policy makers, and healthcare institutions have to be more concern and provide quality medical service in affordable price for rural as well as urban people (Crown, 2013; Draper, 2013; Pace & et. al., 2011; World Health Organisation, n.d.).

The Efficacy of Health Policy at Local, Regional, National and International Levels

In modern scenario, to improve population health, numerous policies are being formulated and implemented. Besides, medical professionals from government and non-government sectors provide effective health services for local, regional and international levels. Currently, medical institutes at local, regional and national levels are required to comply with the medical policies that promote health of the people living in the society. Nowadays, to serve better services, government officials have design policies according to the need of local, regional and national level. For that reason, policies differ from level to level. Professional within the medical industry are also engaged in designing services according to need of the people. Medical institutes operating in the society are committed towards providing quality service at a reasonable price. However, to ensure healthier population around the globe government official have to make more effective policies to save more live (Budson & Kowall, 2011; Pillay & Holtz, 2009; Holtz, 2008).

The Impact of Physical, Mental and Social Ill Health on the Population

A healthier society can create a positive impact within the society. Unwell population cannot generate a healthier society. Physically and mentally fit human being generates positive and effective society. Thus, half of the population is suffering from varied physical and mental diseases and have created a negative impact among social health of the population. Dementia is a neurological disorder and has significant impact on the physical, mental and social health of the people. In this regard, it is anticipated that the people living with dementia are vulnerable to disability. In addition, psychological and behavioural problems are common in the patients living with dementia. Besides, the social impact of dementia is considered to be massive, In this regard, it is anticipated that the prevalence of dementia among the UK population would increase which would further contribute towards the increasing cost of the government. In addition, the family members of the patients suffering with dementia are ascertained to face significant difficulties (Kim et al., 2011; Laventure & Claudine, 2009). In this regard, to ensure a healthier population of British society in 2020 it is important to implement quality medical facility in affordable prices as well as generate adequate awareness among rural and urban people (Campbell, 2013; Teitelbaum & Wilensky, 2013; Budson & Kowall, 2011).

Changes in Disease Incidence, Prevalence, Morbidity and Mortality Rates, Life Expectancy and Fertility Rates over Time and Between Populations

With the help of technological interventions, varied changes are recognised among disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates of life expectancy and fertility rates. For instance, in the past decade due to malnutrition, most of people died, but technological innovations increased the life expectancy among malnutrition patients. With the help of proper care, dementia can be controlled in elderly people. Medical actors can rescue dementia patients, giving them proper care and counselling. Most of rural people die due to improper medical care. In new age, social actors, agents and institutes are required to provide quarterly arrange free medical camps and provide free medicines to the rural patients. With the help of Tele-medical service life expectancy and fertility rates have increased (Teitelbaum & Wilensky, 2013; Briend & Prinzo, 2009; Alzheimer’s Association, 2009).

The Strength and Validity of an Argument

With the help of proper care and Tele-Medical service, dementia can be removed from society. In the current scenario, 50% elderly people are suffered from dementia. To ensure better health by 2020 healthcare professionals, healthcare policy makers, and government and non-government institutions have to provide better facilities for dementia patients. Notably, dementia is one of the common problems throughout the globe, if the medical actors, agents and institutes provide quality service at a lower price, it can facilitate in attaining healthy and prosperous society. On the other side, due to poor medical facility, people in rural areas are deprived of quality healthcare. In this regard, government intervention along with the support from healthcare professionals and non-government agencies towards formulating and implementing policies can promote a healthier British society by 2020 (Alzheimar’s Society, 2014; Draper, 2013).

Access and Interpret Information about the Health of the Population

As per the report of World Health Organisation, currently the United Kingdom population rate is 62783. Out of that population rate, 80% are living in urban areas. The total fertility rate of per women is 1.9%. On the other side, the life expectancy rate is 81% for both sex, healthy life expectancy at birth is 71% (World Health Organisation, 2014; Huang & et. al., 2014; Lang & et. al., 2009).


The above discussion revealed that dementia is a major health problem in the British society. It is vital to ensure that this problem is addressed effectively in order to eliminate the various social and economic issues related to it. Based on the above analysis, it can be ascertained that to ensure healthier population in British society by 2020, firstly it is essential to identify and eliminate the obstacles such as illiteracy, financial crisis among rural and urban areas hindering the loathly of the society. With the help of quality life style, British society population can ensure better life expectancy. The combined efforts from government agencies and non-government agencies along with healthcare professionals can develop a better life style for rural and urban people. Stable and effective health policies can generate new life among rural areas. The use of new technical equipment in treatment would also improve medical service and ensure quality results for future development.

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