“I could glimpse the possibility of being more than a member of a race,” Elisson
There exist a number of modern forms of discrimination socially, economically and politically. This includes direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. Discrimination occurs when an individual is treated less favorably than others are (Kubacki). As well, discrimination exists when there is racial, ethnic, religious, sexual orientation or age. In modern days, regardless of how they dress, their choice of clothes, and probably their physical shape, shorter or too tall, more and more individuals are discriminated against. As well, there could be discrimination in specialization. For instance, when a translating company insists that job applicants should have driving licenses since there is a need to deliver or collect work from the clients. Forms of discrimination exist largely. These forms of discrimination include racism, tokenism and reverse discrimination.
Largely, bigotry is the sort of discrimination centred on one’s ethnicity in contemporary times. Healey believes that the most common mode of expression of bigotry is prejudice in the 21st century 48. Racism is focused on a conviction or philosophy that traits or skills unique to that race are exhibited by various representatives of each race. Racism may arguably be differentiated from being either dominant or inferior to another group or race. Other poets also established that bigotry has utter, superior involvement. Cognitive qualities that may describe ethnicity are used in the definition of prejudice. Old-fashioned bigotry, in fact, is a brazen manifestation of adverse and unjust stereotypes. For example, black individuals are deemed violent in most job areas in this country. A second, more widespread manifestation or bigotry that is hard to identify has been established by theorists. The type of bias is deeply psychological. Hwang, in fact, asks
“If genes don’t determine race, what does?”
Although the racist’s beliefs and prejudicial attitudes still exist. Believes have certainly become less prevalent than they once be 91. In contemporary times, there are more subtle forms, which appeals to social psychologists different. Fahey joins in his argument by justifying that subtle forms entail a subconscious attitude that the holder might be fully unaware that is known 32.
As well, in most societies, ageism is being applied as a form of stereotypical prejudice. For instance, some countries often set the retirement age at 55 years. Likewise, some companies set the age of hiring their senior bosses at 35. Besson argues that unlike the race and gender discrimination and age discrimination ageism has far-reaching negative effects 270. Unlike the race and gender discrimination, age discrimination in the wages is often enshrined in the law. In both UK and United States, the minimum wage laws allow the employers to pay lower wages to young workers. As well, ageism exists in many and different areas of life, and not only causes personal hardship and injustice but also negative impacts on the economy. Ageism, however, is a different form of discrimination as compared t sexism and racism. In fact, Neldon classifies age as a static factor 63. An individual age classification changes as one progresses through life. Hence, age classification is characterized by continual change while other classification systems are traditionally used by the society such as race and gender to remain constant.
Discrimination Against Minorities
Just as a bully can assert power over a weaker student by pure physical intimidation, a more powerful majority might victimize a minority group. This is insensitive to the needs and aspiration of that minority group. In fact, the minority group might be subjected to dehumanization experiences. Convincingly, the minority group might be denied fair privileges.
This form of discrimination refers to a policy or practice of limited inclusion of members of the minority group, hence creating a false appearance of the inclusive practices. There are typical examples, which include purposely member of a minority group usually creating a false appearance of the inclusive practices, international or not. In the work environment, some people are hired at a greater pay than others are just because they come from a given class, race or sex. Hiring people from a specific group is just one form of tokenism, which occurs in other contexts. Thus, in most general form, tokenism involves performing trivial positive actions for the targets of prejudice and using that as an excuse or justification for the later form of discrimination.
Tokenism has two major negative effects. Firstly, it is concerned with the protection for discrimination of individuals who are perpetuating the discrimination. Discrimination can take a point of tokenistic actions as a public proof that is not biased. As well, the second can be damaging to the self-esteem and confidence of their targets of discrimination including, those with few persons and selected as tokens and receive a minimal aid.
Acquisition of Prejudice
Justifiably, there are irrational negative views, which constitute the core of prejudice. From the poems, there here lack justifications that what actually causes prejudice. This information includes formation and development of prejudice that can be focused on stereotypes of cognitive causes of prejudice. Other processes can contribute to forming the prejudice. As noted from the poems, in the contemporary environment, sources of prejudice can be argued as the occurrence of good homes, high status, and short supply. In fact, the foundation for what perhaps the oldest form of explanation of prejudice can be realistic. There are theories that further suggest that competition encourages members of a particular group to get involved in the view of each with increasingly negative terms. As well, evidence from different studies such as Evans (Bader, 83) argues that individual perceive one another in increasingly negative ways. In fact, Evans is quoted to have said
“When I die I’m sure I will have a Big Funeral. Curiosity seekers coming to see if I am really Dead or just trying to make Trouble” (Bader, 83)
Worse still, in a work environment, competition often leads to sometimes-violent conflicts. There are incidents from history that illustrate that consequences or perceived can also lead to prejudice. For instance, global geopolitical conflicts could also lead to the competition. As well, Americans have rights to land, fishing, and mining resources. Sometimes, the groups perceive competition not only for the scarce resources but also because of the threats that it creates two important values.
As well, in the 21st century, social categorization encourages people to divide the social world into two distinct categories. Justifiably, how other persons belonging to forms either in their own group or out of the group justifies why another group exists. Social categorization takes place in many dimensions, which includes race, religion, sex, occupation, income ethnic background. Todd establishes two important patterns that characterize our views of the in-groups versus against out of groups’ process 53. Hence, the person in the “us” group is viewed in favorable terms which are perceived more negatively. For that reason, the out-group members are assumed to possess more undesirable traits than the member of the group, which is often disliked. For that reason, there is strong tendency to divide the social world into “us” and “them”.
Authoritarian Personality Theory
The perspective on prejudice formation identifies a particular a type of personality, which is a root source of the tendency to look upon the world in dichotomous terms of good and evil right or wrong. The personality is largely created in by harsh punitive strategy. In the 21st century, an individual with such a personality type is allegedly disposed to adopt prejudice attitudes as well as thoughts. Convincingly, from Smock texts, it is clear that authoritarian form of the discrimination exists in diverse ways. Smock quotes Chin,
“The dead piled up, thick, fragrant on the fire escape”
“My mother ordered me again, and again to sweep it clean, all which blooms must fall, I learned this not from the Tao, but from high school biology”
It is clear from the above justification that there exist a number of discriminations in contemporary times. Reflectively, discrimination destroyed normative ethics and detains the proper formation of social pillars. As noted, there lacks a coherent justification why discrimination exists in the first place. However, from the justifications presented, it is clear that competition for resources can be blamed for having caused a larger extent of discrimination. For that reason, future research and poets should be hypothetical in relating resources and discrimination. As such, it will be possible to justify why discrimination exists in the first place.
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- Bader, Philip. African-American Writers. New York: Facts On File, 2004. Internet resource.
- Besson, S. A. “Discrimination and Freedom of Contract: Philosophical and Economic Foundations of the Law against Racial Discrimination in Employment.” International Journal of Discrimination and the Law (2014): 269-97. Print.
- Ellison, Ralph. Battle Royal. New York: Vintage International, 1995. Internet resource.
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- Hwang, David H. Trying to Find Chinatown: The Selected Plays. New York, NY: Theatre Communications Group, 2000. Print.
- Kubacki, Kelly. “Jersey Implements First Discrimination Law First Advantage | Background Screening and Employment Solutions.” Jersey Implements First Discrimination Law First Advantage | Background Screening and Employment Solutions. 1 Sept. 2014. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. http://www.fadv.com/company/blog/entry/articletype/articleview/articleid/143/jersey-implements-first-discrimination-law.aspx
- Nelson, Todd D. Ageism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2005.
- Smock, Frederick. The American Voice Anthology of Poetry. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2015. Internet resource.
- Todd, Janet. The Cambridge Companion to Pride and Prejudice. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2013.