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Argumentative Analysis of Bram Stoker’s Dracula Using Feminist Theory

by Suleman
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Bram Stoker’s Dracula is a compelling novel that has introduced Dracula’s character, a man who thirsts for blood, turns people into vampires, and is dangerous to society. Dracula is depicted as an allegorical novel that symbolizes evil in Victorian culture, which persuades women to change their gender roles. The women that have changed should be harmful to society and its moral values. The transition in Victorian culture was menacing for women. Women have been perceived as good mothers and women who run households and other household businesses alone or they can be said to have a dominant male society since they were assigned roles. Victorian culture in the 19th century underwent a transition in which, with the feminist revolution, women became more autonomous and liberal. The novel critically sheds light on modernised women and their shifting positions in a patriarchal society that Stoker and other men were unacceptable and disconnected from. In the context of feminist theory, the novel’s female characters may be studied. Lucy Westenra, Mina Harker and three woman vampires residing with Dracula, also called his three brides, are among these characters.

This paper uses radical feminist theory to test Dracula and also requires authorial critique of claim-supporting critics.

The Victorian society to which Stoker belonged was patriarchal and repressive. With dramatic shifts in women’s roles from dependent mothers and wives to more autonomous and sexually liberal New Women, the dominant male society as a whole got scared.

Argumentative Analysis of Bram Stoker’s Dracula Using Feminist Theory

“The Dracula of Bram Stoker reflects the gender and sexual anxieties and the cultural fears of the late nineteenth century. “[1]

In Victorian culture, the disparities between men and women seemed clear. The contradictions between the two sexes about their place in the society are seen in Stoker ‘s narrative of Dracula. Without each other, women and men are incomplete as they engage in procreation, but the modern awakening of women was seen as a danger to the stability of Victorian society.[2] In his depiction of various characters in his book, Stoker tells Dracula of the transition as an evil that is detrimental to the nature of society.

“Stoker copes with society’s “unprecedented fear and confusion about the social roles, sexual identity, and natural spheres of operation of men and women by hiding female freedom, aggressiveness, and sexual insatiability behind the mask of the demonical power of vampirism. ”[3]

Vampirism in the form of feminism challenged the patriarchal society and male dominant social systems. In the Victorian community, men were allowed much more liberty than women. Male superiority and power over women were imposed and male sexuality and carnal desires were justified, but women were required to suppress their sexuality. The assertion of female sexuality was threatening for the patriarchal society. The representation and idea of female sexuality was regarded satanic and evil. The three vampire women who are also considered Dracula’s brides represented the vulgar and sexually assertive women.[4]

The New Women gained awareness about their rights, independence and sexual freedom. They rejected to remain submissive to men. They had their right to divorce and get custody of their children. There were new marriage and property laws that were empowering for women[5]. All these changes in a patriarchal society made the supremacy of men threatened to which they reacted in various ways. The publishing of “Cult of True Womanhood” indicated not accepting the transforming gender roles. Bram Stoker also attempted to highlight the evils of the transformation of feminine characters into vampires (New Women) who were dangerous for society’s stability [6].

Lucy’s character as portrayed by Stoker can be understood in feminist terms. Being part of a patriarchal society, Lucy represses her desires and ensures herself as connected to Victorian society’s expected values. She writes a letter to Mina representing herself as an example of “The Cult of True Womanhood” as she says,

“You and I, Mina dear, who are engaged and are going to settle down soon soberly into old married women, can despise vanity.”[7]

In these lines, she expresses her desire to settle down and play the role required by a married woman, all of which are expected gender roles of the Victorian society. She believes in patriarchy and male supremacy as she talks about controlling herself and her language in front of her would be husband to please him as she writes in a letter to Mina,

“I do not know myself if I shall ever speak slang; I do not know if Arthur likes it; as I have never heard him use any as yet”.[8]

Patriarchy requires women as subservient to men to perform actions and deeds that are pleasing to men. Therefore, Lucy as a feminine character of Dracula talks about being a woman who is willing and acceptable for her husband.

Lucy’s character shows her as a good-hearted woman, but she appears flirtatious and tempting due to which she becomes more vulnerable to be attacked by Dracula. When she informs Mina about her three proposals and her confusion about her choice, she writes,

“Why can’t they let a girl marry three men or as many as want her and save all this trouble?”[9]

Lucy appears dissatisfied with the monogamy and has more sexual inclinations. She is restricted to act as per her desires because of social restrictions and lack of freedom to act what one wants.[10] However, when she is transformed into a vampire, she enjoys her sexual liberty to seduce anyone she likes. Her transformation into a vampire, or as stoker makes us consider, into New Woman gives her physical, sexual, and social liberty to break society’s norms. Her degeneration into a vampire frees her from patriarchal society’s chains and she is no purer. [11] As a vampire, she rejects the patriarchal society and the values of this society and enjoys liberty.

“Lucy is initially depicted as a little more frivolous and naïve, but pure and always ‘sweet’”.[12]

Her innocence and consideration as a marriageable woman as per Victorian standards drew three suitors to propose marriage to her. When Dracula attacks Lucy after she dies and converts into a vampire, she is impure. As per Victorian standards, she has lost her purity, innocence and repressiveness. Lucy after having bitten by Dracula, showed herself as having a lusty representation and her attitude overall was awkward for the men in the novel. She was regarded as cold-blooded and these representations were against her initial picture of being a chaste and pure woman depicting the role model of Victorian society. According to Dr. Seward, Lucy is no more pure as he says,

“the whole carnal and unspiritual appearance, seeming like a devilish mockery of Lucy’s sweet purity”.[13]

In the patriarchal society, women were expected to sexually and physically pure. Still, after being attacked by Dracula, she is no more refined because the evil has entered into her body and mind. Even after various attempts to bring back Lucy’s purity, Lucy cannot be saved and she is finally destroyed. After her execution, she again receives her “unequaled sweetness and purity”[14]. When Lucy could not fit in the values of patriarchal society after being converted into a vampire, the only solution available was to annihilate her to save the company at stake.

“Not only does he emphasize their voluptuousness and sexual aggression and contrast their behavior to that of his chaste and sexually timid heroine but he has his male characters destroy these threatening women and reestablish a more traditional order”.[15]

According to radical feminist theory, Stoker has portrayed Mina as a feminine character who is repressed and submissive and she stands as a role model for other women of Victorian society. Mina can be regarded as a perfect Victorian wife as she has all the qualities that were considered traditional and required of women in the era. Mina is

“born to serve as man’s helpmate”[16]

She is quite loyal to Jonathan and keeps waiting for his safe return. In his absence, she never thinks of finding some other match for herself. As per Victorian standards, she is chaste and pure. Mina is unlike the sexualized women of the society, also known as ‘New Women’ and follows the traditional norms of remaining submissive to her husband and forming a part of patriarchal system accepting in men’s supremacy and women as followers and caregivers towards men. Mina is in all always epitome of womanhood as per Victorian standards. Demetrakopoulos writes,

“Mina is most feminine” and “typically Victorian in her sexual repression”.[17]

Mina Harker has her viewpoints about her position in society. In her letter to Lucy, Mina writes,

“I want to keep up with Jonathan’s studies, and I have been practicing shorthand very assiduously. When we are married, I will be able to be useful to Jonathan”.[18]

These lines, written by Mina indicate her acceptance of her subservient role to her husband. She accepts male dominancy and is ready to serve him. She is a part of patriarchal society and considers herself of no use, but as a dutiful wife to her would-be husband as she writes,

“I had nothing to give him except myself, my life, and my trust, and that with these went my love and duty for all the days of my life.”[19]

Mina is dutiful as a woman is expected to play her traditional role of a submissive wife.

“She is praised for her feminine qualities – chiefly fidelity, prudence, and practicality – that make her a perfect wife and secretary”[20]

Van Helsing gets happy when he meets Mina and says that she has

“given me hope … that there are good women still left to make life happy”.[21]

He further says,

“She is one of God’s women, fashioned by His hand to show us, men and women, that there is a heaven where we can enter.”[22]

When Stoker writes about Mina as having a ‘man’s brain’ and a woman’s heart, he mentions the notion that men can be intelligent and witty, however, women are generally gentle and nurturing. For a woman to be mentally smart seemed unnatural to him. Also, Lucy questions Mina about the nobility of men and women’s worthlessness as she says,

“why are men so noble when women are so little worthy of them?”[23]

Through Lucy’s question, Stoker depicts women’s subordination and their being fortunate to be accepted by men.

In a patriarchal society, men consider it their duty to protect women they possess, such as Dracula. All the men initially try to save and protect Lucy. After losing her, they started watching Mina, considering themselves responsible for her. When all the men venture to find and kill Dracula, they consider Mina’s security their utmost duty as Dr Van Helsing tells Mina,

“You know that your safety is our most solemn duty.”[24]

All the men in the novel, excluding Dracula become Mina’s rescuer and her savior once she gets into trouble and the

“Once bitten she takes over center stage and becomes the focal point and purpose of the labor carried out by her entourage of masculine types—a doctor, a scientist, an American capitalist, and a member of the English gentry, as well as her husband, a real estate agent”.[25]

The character of Dracula shows male dominance in society. He can dominate any woman and can lead her to become a vampire. Dracula is shown as a male who exercises his power and control over women to depict his male dominance and superiority. He has intense thirst for blood and violence symbolized as lust and sex. Women are portrayed as susceptible and weak who can be easily attacked. This susceptibility can lead to rape that can be represented in Dracula attack over Mina. Mina is an ideal Victorian woman who is attacked and raped symbolically by the Dracula.[26] Mina’s violation is shown as a rape scene in which, she is forced to do what she does not like. With this force and dominance, Dracula shows his superiority over Victorian women. Stoker writes,

“With his left hand, he held both Mrs. Harker’s hands, keeping them away with her arms at full tension; his right hand gripped the back of her neck, forcing her facedown on his bosom. Her white nightdress was smeared with blood, and a thin stream trickled down the man’s bare breast which was shone by hi torn-open dress.”[27]

This scene indicates rape and sexual violation and shows how in a male dominant society, women are forced and pressurized against their will. Sexual intercourse in itself stood as an emotional and physical force to subjugate women in the

Victorian society. Through this act, Dracula symbolizes male power

“over a woman’s body during the Victorian time”[28]

Women in Dracula are represented as helpless and powerless beings who can be stacked seduced or forced by men.

Dracula’s male dominance and superiority are also shown in his treatment of the three vampire women he held captive in his castle. As they are vampires, they appear to have undergone what has happened to Lucy and Mina. Still, because of the absence of some custodian or protector, they were to remain in Dracula’s subjugation. He exercises extreme control on those women vampires and depicts traditional patriarchal setup according to which, women were to act as per permission of dominating male forces. He is not only physically superior, but also socially as per patriarchal standards. It was a common belief in the Victorian era that women belonged to the inferior sex compared to men because of their physical inferiority. Dracula’s superiority and control over the three vampire women can be seen in the following lines,

“With a fierce sweep of his arm, he hurled the woman from him, and then motioned to the others as though he were beating them back; it was the very same imperious gesture that I had seen used to the wolves.”[29]

Dracula, in the above lines shows his physical superiority as well as intellectual power. For him, the three women are his pets whom he has trained as per his liking. His dealing with them as wolves indicates towards domestication of animals and the tactfulness that people use to tame animals. The women were wholly dependent on the Dracula for sustenance. They showed a male dominant society in which, male members of the community were authorized to exercise any control over women considering them inferior to them because of their dependence on men for their living and sustenance. They had no or significantly less rights. When the vampire women tried to attack Jonathan based on their hunger, they were dealt harshly by Dracula as he said,

“How dare you touch him? Any of you! How dare you cast eyes upon him when I had forbidden it? Back, I tell you all! Beware how you meddle with him, or you shall have to deal with me!”[30]

His dealing with the vampires was that of an owner and a master who asked them of their authority to come close to his right. The women acted as his slaves and moved away from Jonathan regarding him to be for their master. Afterwards, Dracula passes a ‘bag’ to the women having their food for the night. His action also informs about a master slave relationship or a relationship between a domesticated animal and his master. The women were so much dependent on him that they took the bag desperately leaving Jonathan for Dracula. How, they took the bag was animalistic and barbaric and showed the women no more as animals. Offering such a relationship between an autocratic and overpowering male and so desperately dependent women appears as a mockery on the Victorian society. Female members of the community were under the control of men because of their dependence on them.

Men in the Victorian society had somewhat different feelings towards progressive women or were known as New Women. The three brides or female vampires that the count kept captive in his castle can be symbolized as New Women who were open about their sexuality. This can be depicted in the following passage from Dracula.

“The fair girl went on her knees and bent over me, fairly gloating. There was a deliberate voluptuousness which was both thrilling and repulsive. As she arched her neck, she licked her lips like an animal, till I could see in the moonlight the moisture shining on the scarlet lips and the red tongue as it lapped the white, sharp, teeth”.[31]

The sexual advances of women in the Victorian era were regarded as evil and satanic. Even the men followed them as animalistic in place of human. The sexual attractions created because of such women were entirely considered the fault of women. The woman can be dangerous for society because of her seductions and tempting men to illicit sexual acts. Therefore, for a model female character in the Victorian community, she was to conceal her sexuality and remain submissive to restrict men’s sexual advancements. Women were determined to be expressive or vocal about their sexuality. The Victorian standards were rigid and strict for female population and gave liberty to men of the society. Women were required to maintain their identity as pure, naïve, innocent and weak. When a woman moved against society’s norms, she was regarded as ‘sexually aggressive’ and open about her desires. The male dominancy in the community as a whole got endangered.[32] The Victorian society viewed the awakened female sexuality in the era of ‘New Women’ as evil. Demetrakopoulos states,

“the sexuality is violent, brutal, intriguingly evil; emanations of irresistible sexuality break through into consciousness in fantastic and grotesque forms”.[33]

With the depiction of three women vampires in Dracula’s castle, Stoker also depicts promiscuity and prostitution. For him, the women who are open about their sexuality are not chaste, pure and loyal and show the evil picture of the society. These vampire women are nasty and because of being symbolized as “New Women”. According to Stoker, these women can make society evil because of their overt sexuality and their seductions of men. As a whole, the novel presents hostility towards female sexuality and there are comparisons between good and bad or evil women. Mina speaks with contempt about ‘New Women’ and regards that they enjoy the liberty to propose men themselves[34]. Stoker’s novel is directly assaulting towards ‘New Women’ regarding them sexually aggressive and eventually harmful for society.

“Perhaps nowhere is the dichotomy of sensual and sexless woman more dramatic than it is in Dracula and nowhere is the suddenly sexual woman more violently and self-righteously persecuted than in Stoker’s “thriller”.[35]

Vampirism is equaled with sexuality. Stoker writes about two kinds of women in Dracula. Some women are ideal for Victorian society such as Mina and Lucy and some women were threatening Victorian society such as the three vampire women of the Dracula castle. So, there is a line drawn between goodness and evilness. Mina is good and Lucy is also good. Lucy transforms and becomes more sexual when the evil of vampirism hits her. The three vampire women represent overt sexuality and they are also hit by vampirism due to which, they are far away from Victorian model of womanhood. The novel’s good women are chaste, pure, repressive in terms of their desires and loyal to the one who will be or is their husband. However, the evil ones are sexualized and they appear seductive for everyone, they are impure, unchaste, disloyal, and highly expressive sexually. They are unable to control themselves and enjoy evil freedom.[36] Because of the vampirism evil, the women who sexually submissive and repressive were able to change socially. This social change made them more sexualized individuals that were threatening for the whole society.

Dracula is a criticizing work depicting Dracula’s character as a male dominant force that can practice any evil he likes in society. The women who are attacked by Dracula become vampires and eventually appear to be highly sexualized beings. They are tempting and alluring and their sole mission is increasing genuine lust and sex in the society. Stoker is very abusive about the change that feminists attempt to bring in the Victorian community. As per his notions, womanhood’s epitome is far from the feministic ideas of what a woman is and should be. According to Victorian society, a woman should be submissive, repressive, sexless, and obey what they are told to do. They should not have a choice and they should submit to men’s desires and advancements. The notion of ‘New Women’ was haunting for the Victorian society and when Stoker wrote the novel, Dracula, he wanted to condemn feminism and women who were regarded as sexually expressive. In totality, he portrayed conversion of women to vampires as conversion of chaste women into promiscuous women. Mina was the model woman of Victorian society and was as per the norms defined in “the Cult of womanhood”. The men attempting to protect her were protecting womanhood. The women vampires captive in the count’s castle lost their femininity and were just sexual beings alluring and seducing men. Vampirism or change in the role of females was regarded as evil as being a part of patriarchal system, the movement regarding feministic awakening was a sort of revolt against the men of the society. Overall, it can be said that Dracula is an allegorical novel in which, the conversion to vampires is symbolic of change in the women of Victorian society that was regarded evil and damaging for the whole community. Stoker with Dracula’s portrayal described an evil that haunted women and converted them into sexually aggressive creatures ready to attack anyone with unconcealed desires and motives.

Literature Review

Dracula written by Bram Stoker has been analyzed using various theories. Feminist theory is one of the most critical ideas that radical feminists have used for diagnosing Dracula. Stoker wrote Dracula for depicting the change in the society that women of the company witnessed in Victorian era. Feminist movements highlighted the submissiveness of women in terms of sexuality and the patriarchal system that suppresses women’s desires and regards them as controlled creatures who do not possess emotions or feelings. Dracula highlights that women having sexual awareness and knowledge are evil for society and can bring about the Victorian community’s destruction. Women can tempt men and this tempting will eventually make the whole society evil. The women who go through evil change and become vampires depict themselves as sexual beings such as the aftermath of Lucy’s personality is shown and the three vampires of the castle are shown. Mina is defined as epitome of Victorian women who are chaste, pure and loyal and such women need to be secured for the continuity of a healthy society. These are the beliefs that Stoker wanted to present in his novel. I have chosen this topic because after reading Dracula between the lines, I found it to be highlighting certain features criticized by feminists. Also, feminism is an interesting theory that evaluates female characters’ characterization and discrimination in portraying those characters. Dracula emphasizes over specific characteristics that women of the Victorian age should have to remain exemplary for society.

To analyze Dracula using feminist theory, the feminist theory itself and different authorial analysis of the text as per feminist theory were required to be comprehended and utilized studying the book, Dracula in depth. For finding sources that were to be used in writing an argumentative analysis of feminist theory in Dracula, the internet databases such as EBSCO, ProQuest and Jstor were used. Before considering a work suitable for inclusion in the study to analyze feminism in Dracula, the abstracts or summaries given with the sources were read. If found suitable for the comment, they were downloaded and read thoroughly to find helpful material for writing the paper.

List of the Sources
  • Armstrong, N. (2005). Feminism, fiction, and the Utopian promise of “Dracula”. Critical Insights 252-278.
  • This article discusses free sexual expression, vampires rejecting the limits of realism and autonomy available to people in a society related to Dracula. This work is advantageous as the writer explains feminism in Victorian society, people’s perceptions and ideological beliefs. I like this article because of its content.
  • Böhme, C. (2006). Gender in Bram Stoker’s ‘Dracula’. American Studies.
  • Bohme explains Victorian feminism and rise of New women who have threatened the gender roles in Victorian society. That threat is illustrated through Stoker’s work, Dracula, in which, the women convert into vampires that are dangerous for the company. This article is informative and illustrative about gender roles and feminism and is supportive for analysis of feminism in the text. This paper is useful because of its gender analysis.
  • Craft, Christopher. (1999). “Kiss Me with Those Red Lips; Gender and Inversion in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Bram Stoker. Dracula. Ed. Glennis Byron. New York: MacMillian.
  • Craft’s article entitled as ‘Kiss Me with Those Red Lips: Gender and Inversion in Bram Stoker’s Dracula’ gives attention to the boundary between the masculine and feminine characteristics and the rising tension between the two in the novel, Dracula. This paper is again significant for my study because of its connection to feminism and masculinity.
  • Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie. “Feminism, Sex role Exchanges, and Other Subliminal Fantasies in Bram Stoker’s Dracula.”  Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies 2.3 (1977): 104-113.
  • The author of this article regards Dracula as a feminist work in which, Stoker, the novel’s writer has informed about women’s repressiveness in Victorian society by portrayed the character of Mina who has a feminine personality per the standards of Victorian community. This article is very advantageous in analyzing the text and seeing the feminist characteristics highlighted by the critic.
  • Dixon, S. (2006). Dracula and the New Woman: The Underlying Threat in Bram Stoker’s Classic. The Bruce Hall Academic Journal, 47-56.
  • This article is about Stoker’s fear concerning “New Women” (Modern women) of the Victorian society portrayed in his novel, Dracula by showing them as converting into vampires who are much freer and open about their sexual desires. It is useful for the essay because it illustrates women’s changing roles and their consideration by the patriarchal Victorian society.
  • Pektas, Nilifer. (2009). “The Importance of Blood during the Victorian Era: Blood as a Sexual Signifier in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Soderton University College.
  • This article talks about female sexuality and Victorian male imagination regarding that sexuality that is excellently illustrated by Dracula in which, the issues of sex and blood are interlinked. Overall, this article is handy for the study because it informs about sexuality, feminism, and Dracula’s main characters.
  • Rosenberg, N. F. (2000). Desire and Loathing in Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Journal of Dracula Studies, 2, 8-14.
  • Rosenberg highlights sexual anxieties and cultural fear of the Victorian society based on gender conflict depicted in Dracula. This is an informative piece of work that connects the text, Dracula with the Victorian community, and evaluates Mina and Lucy’s persona along with other characters of the story.
  • Roth, Phyllis A. (1977). Suddenly sexual women in Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Literature and Psychology27(3), 113-121.
  • This article informs about the attack of Stoker on female sexuality and on New Women as sexually aggressive. It is very significant article for the study underhand and provides useful information about feminist criticism.
  • Senf, C. A. (2007). Rethinking the New Woman in Stoker’s Fiction: Looking at Lady Athlyne. Journal of Dracula Studies, 9.
  • Senf evaluates the portrayal of New Women in Dracula with another work by Stoker and informs about Stoker’s depiction of changing gender positioning in the society in his works. This article explains sexuality and feminism in Stoker’s books required for analyzing Stoker’s Dracula.

By following a sequential approach in finding and analyzing significant sources required to evaluate radical feminism in Stoker’s Dracula, I learned a lot. I was able to look into various databases containing assistive content. However, while searching for the specific topic, the researchers get diverted to other issues and their search process gets prolonged that is eventually troublesome. Therefore, one should stick to the study’s subject and ignore other problems and exciting topics because much time is wasted in useless surfing. Overall, the exercise was a beneficial one, and I think that I will be able to work in a swift and focused manner in the future.

Bibliography
  • Armstrong, N. (2005). Feminism, fiction, and the Utopian promise of” Dracula”. Critical Insights 252-278.
  • Böhme, C. (2006). Gender in Bram Stoker’s’ Dracula’. American Studies.
  • Craft, Christopher. (1999). “Kiss Me with Those Red Lips; Gender and Inversion in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Bram Stoker. Dracula. Ed. Glennis Byron. New York: MacMillian.
  • Dixon, S. (2006). Dracula and the New Woman: The Underlying Threat in Bram Stoker’s Classic. The Bruce Hall Academic Journal, 47-56.
  • Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie. (1977)“Feminism, Sex role Exchanges, and Other Subliminal Fantasies in Bram Stoker’s Dracula.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies 2.3: 104-113.
  • Pektas, Nilifer. (2009). “The Importance of Blood during the Victorian Era: Blood as a Sexual Signifier in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Soderton University College.
  • Roth, Phyllis A. (1977). Suddenly sexual women in Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Literature and Psychology27(3), 113-121.
  • Rosenberg, N. F. (2000). Desire and Loathing in Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Journal of Dracula Studies, 2, 8-14.
  • Senf, C. A. (2007). Rethinking the New Woman in Stoker’s Fiction: Looking at Lady Athlyne. Journal of Dracula Studies, 9.
  • Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897.
  • [1] Rosenberg, N. F. (2000). Desire and Loathing in Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Journal of Dracula Studies, 2, 8.
  • [2] Craft, Christopher. (1999). “Kiss Me with Those Red Lips; Gender and Inversion in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Bram Stoker. Dracula. Ed. Glennis Byron. New York: MacMillian.
  • [3] Böhme, C. (2006). Gender in Bram Stoker’s’ Dracula’. American Studies, p. 3.
  • [4] ibid
  • [5] Böhme, C. (2006). Gender in Bram Stoker’s’ Dracula’. American Studies, p. 5.
  • [6]ibid, p. 6
  • [7] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 78
  • [8] Ibid, p. 78
  • [9] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 96.
  • [10] Pektas, Nilifer. (2009). “The Importance of Blood during the Victorian Era: Blood as a Sexual Signifier in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Soderton University College, p. 12.
  • [11] Dixon, S. (2006). Dracula and the New Woman: The Underlying Threat in Bram Stoker’s Classic. The Bruce Hall Academic Journal, p. 48
  • [12] Dixon, S. (2006). Dracula and the New Woman: The Underlying Threat in Bram Stoker’s Classic. The Bruce Hall Academic Journal, p. 50.
  • [13] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 224.
  • [14] Ibid, p. 224.
  • [15] Senf, C. A. (2007). Rethinking the New Woman in Stoker’s Fiction: Looking at Lady Athlyne. Journal of Dracula Studies, 9.
  • [16] Armstrong, N. (2005). Feminism, fiction, and the Utopian promise of” Dracula”. Critical Insights, p. 265.
  • [17] Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie. (1977)“Feminism, Sex role Exchanges, and Other Subliminal Fantasies in Bram Stoker’s Dracula.”  Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies 2.3, p. 104
  • [18] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 75.
  • [19] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 123
  • [20] Dixon, S. (2006). Dracula and the New Woman: The Underlying Threat in Bram Stoker’s Classic. The Bruce Hall Academic Journal, p. 49
  • [21] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 166
  • [22] Ibid, p. 168.
  • [23] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 67
  • [24] ibid, p. 347.
  • [25] Armstrong, N. (2005). Feminism, fiction, and the Utopian promise of” Dracula”. Critical Insights, p. 265.
  • [26] Pektas, Nilifer. (2009). “The Importance of Blood during the Victorian Era: Blood as a Sexual Signifier in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Soderton University College, p. 14.
  • [27] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 319.
  • [28] Pektas, Nilifer. (2009). “The Importance of Blood during the Victorian Era: Blood as a Sexual Signifier in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Soderton University College, p. 12.
  • [29] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, pp. 50-51.
  • [30] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 51.
  • [31] Stoker, Bram. Dracula: New York: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897, p. 50.
  • [32] Pektas, Nilifer. (2009). “The Importance of Blood during the Victorian Era: Blood as a Sexual Signifier in Bram Stoker’s Dracula”. Soderton University College, p. 1.
  • [33] Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie. (1977)“Feminism, Sex role Exchanges, and Other Subliminal Fantasies in Bram Stoker’s Dracula.”  Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies 2.3, p. 106.
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  • [36] ibid

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